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Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons
 
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Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons [Format Kindle]

Christof Koch

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Descriptions du produit

Présentation de l'éditeur

Neural network research often builds on the fiction that neurons are simple linear threshold units, completely neglecting the highly dynamic and complex nature of synapses, dendrites, and voltage-dependent ionic currents. Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons challenges this notion, using richly detailed experimental and theoretical findings from cellular biophysics to explain the repertoire of computational functions available to single neurons. The author shows how individual nerve cells can multiply, integrate, or delay synaptic inputs and how information can be encoded in the voltage across the membrane, in the intracellular calcium concentration, or in the timing of individual spikes.
Key topics covered include the linear cable equation; cable theory as applied to passive dendritic trees and dendritic spines; chemical and electrical synapses and how to treat them from a computational point of view; nonlinear interactions of synaptic input in passive and active dendritic trees; the Hodgkin-Huxley model of action potential generation and propagation; phase space analysis; linking stochastic ionic channels to membrane-dependent currents; calcium- and potassium-currents and their role in information processing; the role of diffusion, buffering and binding of calcium, and other messenger systems in information processing and storage; short- and long-term models of synaptic plasticity; simplified models of single cells; stochastic aspects of neuronal firing; the nature of the neuronal code; and unconventional models of sub-cellular computation.
Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons serves as an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cellular biophysics, computational neuroscience, and neural networks, and will appeal to students and professionals in neuroscience, electrical and computer engineering, and physics.

Biographie de l'auteur

Christof Koch is at California Institute of Technology.

Détails sur le produit

  • Format : Format Kindle
  • Taille du fichier : 11198 KB
  • Nombre de pages de l'édition imprimée : 592 pages
  • Editeur : Oxford University Press, USA; Édition : 1 (12 novembre 1998)
  • Vendu par : Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ASIN: B000VDK2CM
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Amazon.com: 4.3 étoiles sur 5  9 commentaires
30 internautes sur 31 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 One of the most important book on neurology in a decade. 9 novembre 1999
Par Alwyn Scott (acs@math.arizona.edu) - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
For young research scientists who are interested in understanding the dynamics of the human brain, Koch's book provides the ideal introduction. Written in a precise yet easy style, the 21 Chapters of "Biophysics of Computation" begin at the beginning, introducing the reader to elementary electrical properties of membrane patches, linear cable theory, and the properties of passive dendritic trees. These introductory chapters are followed by two on the properties of synapses and the various ways that synapses can interact to perform logic on passive dendritic trees. Then the Hodgkin--Huxley formulation is discussed in detail, and various simplifying models are presented. As a basis for the Hodgkin--Huxley description, our present understanding of ionic channels is reviewed and the importance of calcium currents is emphasized. Further chapters discuss linearization of the H--H equations for small amplitude analysis, a careful examination of ionic diffusion, electrochemical properties of dendritic spines, synaptic plasticity, simple neural models, stochastic neural models. and the properties of bursting cells. Just about every facet of current neural knowledge is touched upon, with appropriate references to a carefully selected bibliography which will help the diligent novice delve deeply into whatever aspect of neural information processing that he or she chooses.
All of the above comprises an extended introduction to Chapters 17 through 19, which in the words of the author: "synthesize the previously learned lessons into a complete account of the events occuring in realistic dendritic trees with all of their attendant nonlinearities. We will see that dendrites can indeed be very powerful, nontraditional computational devices, implementing a number of continuous operations."
Thus "Biophysics of Computation" offers a definitive statement for the direction in which the neural research of the new century should go. Chapter 20, the penultimate, discussed several speculations for non-neural computation in the brain, ranging from molecular computing below the level of a single neuron to the effects of chemical diffusants (nitric oxide, calcium ions, carbon monoxide, etc.) on large numbers of neurons. Although this entire area has been neglected by the neuroscience community, Koch points out that there are no good reasons for doing so.
Finally, in the summary of Chapter 21, seven problems for future research projects are listed, emphasizing that the study of information processing in single neurons is very much a work in progress.
15 internautes sur 16 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 How smart is a neuron? 14 avril 2004
Par Alwyn Scott - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
For young scientists who are interested in understanding the dynamics of the human brain this change in collective attitude is of profound significance, to which Koch's book provides an ideal introduction.Written in a precise yet easy style, the 21 chapters of Biophysics of Computation begin at the beginning, introducing the reader to elementary electrical properties of membrane patches, linear cable theory and the properties of passive dendritic trees. These introductory chapters are followed by two on the properties of synapses and the various ways that synapses can interact to perform logic on passive dendritic trees. Then the Hodgkin-Huxley formulation for impulse propagation on a single fibre is discussed in detail, and various simplifying models are presented. As a basis for the Hodgkin-Huxley description the present
understanding of ionic channels is reviewed, emphasizing the importance of calcium currents. Further chapters discuss linearization of the H-H equations for small amplitude behavior; present a careful examination of ionic diffusion processes; and describe electrochemical properties of dendritic spines, synaptic plasticity, simple neural models, stochastic neural models and the properties of bursting cells. Just about every facet of currently available neural knowledge is touched upon, with appropriate references to a carefully selected bibliography that will help the diligent novice delve deeply into whatever aspect of neural information processing he or she chooses.
All of the above comprises an extended introduction to Chapters 17 to 19, which: `synthesize the previously learned lessons into a complete account of the events occurring in realistic dendritic trees with all of their attendant nonlinearities'. `We will see', the author writes, `that dendrites can indeed be very powerful, nontraditional computational devices, implementing a number of continuous operations.' Thus Biophysics of Computation offers a definitive statement for the direction in which the neural research of the new century should go. Chapter 20, the penultimate, discusses several speculations for non-neural computation in the brain, ranging from molecular computing below the level of a single neuron to the effects of chemical diffusants (nitric oxide, calcium ions, carbon monoxide, etc.) on large numbers of neurons. Although this entire area has been neglected by most of the neuroscience community, Koch points out that there are no good reasons for doing so. As we enter the new century, neuroscientists should keep their minds open. Finally, in the summary of Chapter 21, seven problems for future research projects are listed, emphasizing that the investigation of information processing in single neurons is very much a work in progress. It is of interest to examine these `strategic questions' as they reveal the author's intuitions about possible directions of future developments. (Note that these are not direct quotes, as I have taken the liberty of summarizing Koch's questions.)
(1) How can the operation of multiplication be implemented at the level of a single neuron?
(2) What are the sources of noise in a neural system and how does this noise influence the logical operation of a single neuron?
(3) How is the style of neural computation influenced by metabolic considerations?
(4) What is the function of the apical dendrite, which is a typical cortical structure?
(5) How and where does learning actually take place in a neural system?
(6) What are the functions of the dendritic trees, the forms of which vary so widely from neuron to neuron?
(7) How can we construct neural models that are sufficiently realistic to capture the essential functions of real neurons yet simple enough to allow large-scale computations of brain dynamics?
As these questions indicate, Koch is not merely concerned with understanding
what unusual behaviours the neuron does or might exhibit. His broad aim is to comprehend the relation between this behavioural ability and the computational tasks that the neuron is called upon to perform. In his words:
``Thinking about brain style computation requires a certain frame of mind, related to but distinctly different from that of the biophysicist. For instance, how should we think of a chemical synapse? In terms of complicated pre- and post-synaptic elements? Ionic channels? Calcium binding proteins? Or as a non-reciprocal and stochastic switching device that transmits a binary signal rapidly between two neurons and remembers its history of usage? The answer is that we must be concerned with both aspects, with biophysics as well as computation.''
This excellent book is evidently a labour of love, stemming from the author's 1982 doctoral thesis on information processing in dendritic trees. As far as I can tell all relevant aspects of neural processing are considered, with what seem to me to be just the proper amounts of emphasis. The writing style is precise and rigorous without being stuffy, and the many references to a fifty-page bibliography will be of enormous value to young researchers starting out in this field.
In addition to its obvious value for those engaged in experimental, theoretical or numerical studies of neuronal behaviour Biophysics of Computation would also work well as the text for an introductory course in neural dynamics, perhaps as part of a neuroscience program.
Alwyn Scott
[...]
15 internautes sur 16 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 brief & comprehensive 7 juillet 2001
Par Jihwan Myung - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
This book attempts to integrate bits from papers & other textbooks. Incorporated in the book are all but the most oft-discussed topics in neurophysics.
We don't know much about biological neurons. We don't really understand how they perform computation. Yet we have some models, approximations of the models, and theories of how the model neurons get organized to do computation. These are summarized in this book in a breif & comprehensive manner.
Some notes: 1) Portions of the book may be found in greater detail elsewhere. 2) The book is more about biophysics than compuation.
5 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Single Neuron Computational Modeling 10 juin 2004
Par Joseph J Grenier - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
This is the main book, the "Bible", on single neuron and ion channel computational modeling. Plenty of theory & rigor here! Professor Koch, with CalTech, models single ion channel function, dendrite, dendrite tree function, cable theory, stocastic theories, integrate-fire model, the Poisson model, and discusses how single neurons work together inside the brain. It is worth owning both as a reference book and to use in the laboratory. Dr. Koch has written many other books, but I think this stands out as his best. Methods in Neuronal Modeling 2nd edition is also very good. Koch's writings are complementary, but are not redundant. One can read this book without a problem if you know Calculus.
2 internautes sur 2 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Excellent look at Neurophysics and Computatinal Processes of Neurons 24 janvier 2013
Par Matthew Bailey - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Format Kindle|Achat vérifié
I am still about 1 half a year away from having all of the math and biology needed to understand ALL of this book, but it's descriptions of single-unit computational processes are clear and easy to parse even without a the additional math and biology.

That said, this IS a book for professionals and students of Computational Neuroscience. It is not intended for a lay audience.
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