Aucun appareil Kindle n'est requis. Téléchargez l'une des applis Kindle gratuites et commencez à lire les livres Kindle sur votre smartphone, tablette ou ordinateur.
Pour obtenir l'appli gratuite, saisissez votre adresse e-mail ou numéro de téléphone mobile.
Connecting Chords with Linear Harmony Format Kindle
|Neuf à partir de||Occasion à partir de|
Les clients ayant acheté cet article ont également acheté
Descriptions du produit
Détails sur le produit
Commentaires en ligne
Meilleurs commentaires des clients
Commentaires client les plus utiles sur Amazon.com (beta)
Although the outlines appear very restrictive at first glance, Ligon makes a good case that these basic patterns can be varied and embellished without end, limited only by the creativity of the player. At his disposal are hundreds of examples of the outlines, transcribed from recorded solos.
However, this book has some troubling theoretical inconsistencies, and one very big flaw: The numerous examples cited in the book are completely removed from their musical context, which often complicates their analysis. Bafflingly, for each example, Ligon cites the name of the soloist but not the recording from which he transcribed the solo or even the name of the tune! This is a problem because nearly all the examples are only 2 - 4 measures long and end immediately on the beat after the I chord is reached, as if Ligon is not concerned in the slightest with what jazz musicians play over I chords. And because he often fails to include a key signature, it is sometimes impossible to analyze the example in the context of the key of the song.
All these problems come to light almost immediately, when on page 18 he runs into murky waters. A one-bar musical example is given showing two beats of Am7b5 and two beats of D7. Because the name of the tune is not given, nor a key signature, we have no way of knowing what the context of these chords are in the structure of the tune.
Describing this short example, Ligon writes, "Tom Harrell uses this pattern on a iii - V7/ii progression in the key of F." Ah, ok - so now we understand that the full progression is most likely Am7b5, D7, Gm7, C7, F. Ligon continues, "The Am7 chord is not the ii chord of the key of G major, rather the iii of the key of F major." First of all, *what* Am7 chord? The example shows an Am7b5, not Am7. They may be functionally similar but they imply different modalities, as Ligon has explained previously. Nothing in the melody indicates Eb, and again, we don't know the tune, so we can't investigate further. Second, I'm confused why he felt the need to clarify that the A chord is not the ii of G major, except for the fact that it is presented completely out of context, requiring explanation in the text that it is actually iii of F. Except of course that Am7b5, the actual chord in the example, is *not* the iii of F!
Moving on: "Because of the key signature of one flat, the second note is B-flat." Where to begin? There is no key signature at all in the example! And the second note is not flatted, it is shown as a B-natural! Is this a copy error, and Ligon meant to write Am7 and Bb? Or did Tom Harrell actually play a B natural over an Am7b5 chord, a very plausible possibility? We don't know anything about the tune or the recording, so we can't check for ourselves.
Next: "The D7 chord is the secondary dominant to G minor, the ii chord of F major." Ok, that explains why Ligon calls it a V7/ii instead of a VI7, but what about the preceding Am7b5 chord? That chord also borrows an Eb from G minor, so wouldn't it make more sense to call it ii/ii ? Isn't it also participating in the tonicization of G minor?
Finally: "To get to G minor [Tom Harrell] needed to add one flat (Eb) and add the leading tone to G minor (F#). In doing so he spelled out a D7 with a flat nine. Both chromatic tones pointing to the new key are included in the line." This is actually a great explanation of how modal borrowing and temporary tonicization work, and it explains why 7b9 chords often occur before minor chords, especially on V7/ii, not just because someone wrote 7b9 on a lead sheet (as Mark Levine would have you believe) but because it describes the voice leading that is happening in the melody. But the explanation is incomplete. What is not mentioned is that the note Eb (b9 of D7) sounds good in this case because it voice leads down a half step to D, the fifth of G minor. Ligon explains very well in Chapter 1 how the seventh of one chord voice leads down a half step to the third of the next, and the third of a dominant chord leads up to the root of the tonic, but his discussion of voice leading ends there. He mentions only in passing that ninths may also resolve to fifths, which is why the borrowing of a b9 on a dominant chord leads to more effective resolution on the following minor chord.
This incomplete discussion of voice leading is reflected in his outlines. The vast majority of his examples show the seventh leading down to the third, leaving unexplored the other possibilities for connecting chords with good voice leading using other chords tones. This restriction might be useful for a beginning player, so as not to get overwhelmed by the possibilities inherent in soloing, but using only this device in a real solo will sound boring. Now, it might seem that I'm picking an awful lot on just one tiny example, but this example is emblematic of other examples throughout the book.
Another issue is that Ligon's outlines are directly applicable only in a rather limited context: ii-V7-I and secondary dominant progressions with a fast harmonic rhythm. When the harmonic rhythm is fast - two beats per chord, as in almost all the examples given, the outlines can be used with little or no embellishment. But players will struggle to use these concepts over many tunes where the harmonic rhythm is slower, and much embellishment is required to expand the patterns to fill more time. There is some discussion of embellishment techniques, but Ligon never demonstrates how a player might expand the outlines using (for example) sequences. And although he makes some attempts to show how the outlines can be used over other types of chord progressions, I find his examples unconvincing - he's trying a little too hard to force these examples into his outline theory, rather than letting the theory follow from the examples.
Finally, as I've mentioned before, there is no discussion of what to play over a I chord or how to connect it to whatever follows - indeed, so many examples simply stop at the end of a dominant 7 chord, leaving the reader wondering what the I chord is supposed to be - is it major? is it minor? is it even a I chord at all or something else? are we looking at a ii - V7 or a iii - V7/ii progression? How are we supposed to analyze the solo, completely devoid of its context in the tune?
This problem presents itself in the Am7b5 - D7 example above, and this illustrates a problem with the whole 'temporary tonicization' explanation. After Ligon has explained that the melody on the D7 chord is borrowing from G harmonic minor, we never actually get to see what Tom Harrell plays on the Gm7 chord itself! The melody is left hanging on an Eb note in the D7 bar, leaving us to wonder if it will resolve down to D, the fifth of G minor, or perhaps up to F, the seventh. But a player might wonder, if the Gm is being tonicized as a minor i chord by D7, and Harrell is borrowing F# and Eb from G harmonic minor, what should she play over the Gm7 itself? Should we in fact treat it as if it were a minor i? Ligon has stated earlier that we should play notes from the harmonic minor scale over a minor i. Well, that might be a good choice to spice things up, but the more conventional choice is to treat the Gm7 as what it really is, a ii chord that implies dorian harmony, with an F natural seventh. Playing F# in this context will sound exotic but will not give the smooth voice leading to E that Ligon desires when the C7 finally comes around.
On the other hand, if we're looking at an Am7b5 - D7 preceding a bridge that modulates into the key of G minor, we might very well want to play notes chosen from the G harmonic or even melodic minor scale over the following Gm chord, and we're going to choose different notes to play over the A and D chords as well. If it were an Am7 - D7 as part of vi - V/V - V - I progression in the key of C, we would make still different choices and alterations. Context matters, and that it what gets lost in this book. It is an especially serious flaw in a book that emphasizes functional harmony and voice leading instead of viewing chords as isolated verticalizations of modes.
All this said, despite the serious problem of lack of context in the examples, Ligon's book is still an excellent gateway into ii-V-I playing, and a player who sits down with this book and Aebersold's ii-V-I tracks will be playing satisfying solos almost immediately, with plenty of room to grow and inject one's own creativity over time.
In my view, if you only improvise using these structures you will be an outstanding player! They are extremely powerful tools.
Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony is a must buy: it is a fresh approach to the skill of jazz improvisation.
The specific text from the book is gone from my mind... but the concepts became part of my playing.
Connecting Chords with Linear Harmony is a great study of how to create coherent solos and well structured melodies by playing the changes and connecting the tones. As a swing based player who had to deal with being overdosed with modal theory this was the first book I ever read that really helped me play in the swing/bop/hard bop based tradition that I love.
As mentioned, the book hass become part of my playing, but I left my copy back in the States ages ago... however, the all I rememember is that I found every page to be practical and enlightening and it opened up a world of ideas. Along with Amadea's Harmonic Foundations for Jazz and Pop, I'd definitely rank it as one of the most important Jazz improv texts I've ever got (and one of the few useful ones.) - - Thank heaven its FINALLY up on Amazon - - I'm definitely getting it AGAIN !
Rechercher des articles similaires par rubrique
- Boutique Kindle > Ebooks Kindle > Ebooks en langues étrangères > Ebooks en anglais > Entertainment > Music > Musical Genres > Jazz
- Boutique Kindle > Ebooks Kindle > Ebooks en langues étrangères > Ebooks en anglais > Entertainment > Music > Theory, Composition & Performance > Instruction & Study
- Boutique Kindle > Ebooks Kindle > Ebooks en langues étrangères > Ebooks en anglais > Entertainment > Music > Theory, Composition & Performance > Songbooks
- Livres anglais et étrangers > Entertainment > Music > Musical Genres > Jazz
- Livres anglais et étrangers > Entertainment > Music > Theory, Composition & Performance > Instruction & Study
- Livres anglais et étrangers > Entertainment > Music > Theory, Composition & Performance > Songbooks