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Drawing on the Artist Within (English Edition) [Format Kindle]

Betty Edwards

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Extrait


Chapter 1

Creativity: The Chameleon Concept

What on earth is creativity? How can a concept be so important in human thinking, so crucial to human history, so dearly valued by nearly everyone yet be so elusive?

Creativity has been studied, analyzed, dissected, documented. Educators discuss the concept as if it were a tangible thing, a goal to be attained like the ability to divide numbers or play the violin. Cognitive scientists, fascinated by creativity, have produced volumes of bits and pieces, offering tantalizing glimpses and hints, but have not put the parts together into an understandable whole. To date we still have no generally accepted definition of creativity -- no general agreement on what it is, how to learn it, how to teach it, or if, indeed, it can be learned or taught. Even the dictionary finesses definition with a single cryptic phrase: "creativity: the ability to create," and my encyclopedia avoids the difficulty altogether with no entry, even though another admittedly elusive concept, "intelligence," is allotted a full-length column of fine print. Nevertheless, books abound on the subject as seekers after creativity pursue a concept that seems paradoxically to recede at the same pace at which the pursuers advance.

Drawing on Treasure-Hunt Notes

The trail, fortunately, is at least marked with pointers to guide the chase. Letters and personal records, journals, eyewitness accounts, descriptions, and biographies are in abundance, gathered from creative individuals and their biographers over past centuries. Like clues in a treasure hunt, these notations spur the quest, even though (as in any good treasure hunt) they often seem illogical and indeed frequently contradict each other to confuse the searcher.

Recurring themes and ideas in the notes, however, do reveal some hazy outlines of the creative process. The picture looks like this: the creative individual, whose mind is stored with impressions, is caught up with an idea or a problem that defies solution despite prolonged study. A period of uneasiness or distress often ensues. Suddenly, without conscious volition, the mind is focused and a moment of insight occurs, often reported to be a profoundly moving experience. The individual is subsequently thrown into a period of concentrated thought (or work) during which the insight is fixed into some tangible form, unfolding, as it were, into the form it was intended to possess from the moment of conception.

This basic description of the nature of the creative process has been around since antiquity. The story of Archimedes' sudden insight, while he was sitting in the bathtub mulling over the problem of how to determine the relative quantities of gold and silver in the king's crown, has put his exclamation "Eureka!" (I have found it!) permanently into the language as the "Ah-Ha!" of creativity.

A Scaffolding of Stages

Successive steps in the creative process, however, were not categorized until late in the nineteenth century, when the German physiologist and physicist Herman Helmholtz described his own scientific discoveries in terms of three specific stages. Helmholtz named the first stage of research saturation; the second, mulling-over stage incubation; and the third stage, the sudden solution, illumination.

Helmholtz' three stages were supplemented in 1908 by a fourth stage, verification, suggested by the great French mathematician Henri Poincaré. Poincaré described the stage of verification as one of putting the solution into concrete form while checking it for error and usefulness.

Then, in the early 1960s, the American psychologist Jacob Getzels contributed the important idea of a stage that precedes Helmholtz' saturation: a preliminary stage of problem finding or formulating. Getzels pointed out that creativity is not just solving problems of the kind that already exist or that continually arise in human life. Creative individuals often actively search out and discover problems to solve that no one else has perceived. As Albert Einstein and Max Wertheimer state in the margin quotations, to ask a productive question is a creative act in itself. Another American psychologist, George Kneller, named Getzel's preliminary stage first insight -- a term that encompasses both problem solving (of existing problems) and problem finding (asking new and searching questions).

Thus we have an approximate structure of five stages in the creative process: 1. First Insight 2. Saturation 3. Incubation 4. Illumination 5. Verification. These stages progress over time from one stage to the next. Each stage may occupy varying lengths of time, as indicated in the diagrams below, and the time lengths may possibly be infinitely variable. Only Illumination is in almost every case reported to be brief-a flash of light thrown on the subject. With the notable exception of the Gestalt psychologists, for whom creativity is an unsegmented process, a single consistent line of thinking for the purpose of solving a whole problem, researchers have generally agreed on the basic concept that creativity involves progressive stages which occur over varying lengths of time.

Building on this sketchy outline, however, twentieth-century researchers have continued to embellish the elusive concept of creativity and debate its various aspects. Like Alice in Wonderland, it has undergone one transformation after another, thus increasing one's sense that despite a general notion of its overall configuration, this chameleon concept will forever change before our eyes and escape understanding.

And now the concept is metamorphosing again. Changes in modern life, occurring at an increasingly rapid pace, require innovative responses, thus making it imperative that we gain greater understanding of creativity and control over the creative process. This necessity, coupled with the age-old yearning of individuals to express themselves creatively, has markedly enhanced interest in the concept of creativity, as is shown in the growing number of publications on the subject.

In these publications, one question explored by many writers is whether creativity is rare or widespread among the general population. And the question "Am I creative?" is one we all ask ourselves. The answer to both questions seems to depend on something we usually call "talent" -- the idea that either you have a talent for creativity or you don't. But is it really as simple as that? And just what is talent?

Talent: The Slippery Concept

The drawing course I teach is usually described in the college catalog as follows: "Art 100: Studio Art for Non-Art Majors. This is a course designed for persons who cannot draw at all, who feel they have no talent for drawing, and who believe they probably can never learn to draw."

The response to this description has been overwhelming: my classes are always full to overflowing. But invariably one or more of the newly enrolled students approaches me at the start of the course to say, "I just want to let you know that even though you've taught a lot of people how to draw, I am your Waterloo! I'm the one who will never be able to learn!"

When I ask why, again almost invariably the answer is "Because I have no talent." "Well," I answer, "let's wait and see."

Sure enough, a few weeks later, students who claimed to have no talent are happily drawing away on the same high level of accomplishment as the rest of the class. But even then, they often discount their newly acquired skill by attributing it to something they call "hidden talent."

Turning the Tables on this Strange Situation

I believe the time has come to reexamine our traditional beliefs about creative talent -- "hidden" or otherwise. Why do we assume that a rare and special "artistic" talent is required for drawing? We don't make that assumption about other kinds of abilities -- reading, for example.

What if we believed that only those fortunate enough to have an innate, God-given, genetic gift for reading will be able to learn to read? What if teachers believed that the best way to go about the teaching of reading is simply to supply lots of reading materials for children to handle and manipulate and then wait to see what happens? Such a teacher would, of course, never tamper with a child's spontaneous attempts to read for fear of spoiling "creativity" in reading. If a child asked, "How do you read this?" the teacher would respond, "Just be free! Do what comes into your head. Use your imagination and just enjoy it! Reading should be fun!" Then the teacher would watch to see which children showed "talent" for reading -- the idea being that it's no use trying to teach the skill of reading because if a child isn't "talented," instruction won't help.

It's easy to see that if this were the situation in reading classes, probably only one or two or perhaps three children in a class of twenty-five might somehow manage to learn how to read. They would be designated as "talented" for reading, and no doubt someone would say, "Well, you know, Sally's grandmother was good at reading. Sally probably got it from her." Or "Oh, yes, Billy's good at reading. The family is quite literate, you know. It's in the genes, I guess." Meanwhile, the rest of the children would grow up saying of themselves, "I can't read. I haven't got any talent for it, and I'm sure I could never learn."

What I've described, of course, is more or less the way it is with drawing. Surely parents would object mightily if the concept of talent were used as a roadblock in learning to read the way it is used in learning to draw. But for some reason, most people, parents and students, accept the verdict "No talent for drawing" with quite surprising meekness and even crestfallen agreement.

This situation continues right up to college art classes. There, anxious students, already worded because their draw...

Présentation de l'éditeur

Whether you are a business manager, teacher, writer, technician, or student, you'll find Drawing on the Artist Within the most effective program ever created for tapping your creative powers. Profusely illustrated with hundreds of instructional drawings and the work of master artists, this book is written for people with no previous experience in art.

AH-HA! I SEE IT NOW!
Everyone has experienced that joyful moment when the light flashes on -- the Ah-Ha! of creativity.

Creativity. It is the force that drives problem-solving, informs effective decision-making and opens new frontiers for ambition and intelligence. Those who succeed have learned to harness their creative power by keeping that light bulb turned on.

Now, Betty Edwards, author of Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, the million-copy best-seller that proved all people can draw well just as they can read well, has decoded the secrets of the creative process to help you tap your full creative potential and apply that power to everyday problems. How does Betty Edwards do this? Through the power of drawing -- power you can harness to see problems in new ways.

You will learn how the creative process progresses from stage to stage and how to move your own problem-solving through these key steps:
* First insight
* Saturation
* Incubation
* Illumination (the Ah-Ha!)
* Verification

Through simple step-by-step exercises that require no special artistic abilities, Betty Edwards will teach you how to take a new point of view, how to look at things from a different perspective, how to see the forest and the trees, in short, how to bring your visual, perceptual brainpower to bear on creative problem-solving.

Détails sur le produit

  • Format : Format Kindle
  • Taille du fichier : 3239 KB
  • Nombre de pages de l'édition imprimée : 256 pages
  • Editeur : Simon & Schuster; Édition : 1st Fireside ed (9 octobre 2008)
  • Vendu par : Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ASIN: B0030HKYTM
  • Synthèse vocale : Activée
  • X-Ray :
  • Word Wise: Non activé
  • Composition améliorée: Non activé
  • Classement des meilleures ventes d'Amazon: n°198.276 dans la Boutique Kindle (Voir le Top 100 dans la Boutique Kindle)

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Commentaires en ligne

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Amazon.com: 4.2 étoiles sur 5  49 commentaires
65 internautes sur 68 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Even better than "Drawing on the right side of the brain" 31 mars 2000
Par Mar Calpena - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
This book is the sequel to Betty Edwards brilliant "Drawing on the right side of the brain", but it does contain most of the material in the other title (except for the section on colour) and adds to it a lot of material on creativity and problem solving through drawing. Mrs Edwards method is incredible (I am the one who reviewed the other book as "Took me from stick men to portraits in three days"). If this book included the color section as well it would be perfect.
115 internautes sur 125 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Good, but lots of overlap. Definitely try the original... 6 novembre 2001
Par R. Stephen Gracey - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
I am one of the biggest fans of Betty Edwards' work, having learned to draw in five days by the "Right Brain" method. I have found the "Artist Within" book less helpful than the others, however. In it, Edwards uses many of the same drawing approaches (exercises that I love and which have made all the difference to me) as "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain," but now she applies them to creative problem solving.
I agree completely with her premises and support the approach. On the other hand, as a book, this one is less helpful than the original precisely because it reuses so much of the same material. I would have liked more theory and exploration of just how learning to draw makes a difference in other parts of one's life.
So, I'm not sure I'd recommend this book wholeheartedly, unless you just can't get enough of the "Right Brain" drawing approach. Get "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain," first. Then decide if you want more elaboration with a different spin.
46 internautes sur 47 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 It's worth buying for the part on analog drawing 8 septembre 2004
Par Catherine Jo Morgan - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
This book is not a substitute for Betty Edwards' basic book on drawing, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. This book is about the creative process. So it applies to more than drawing or even visual art.

For me, the part on analog drawing opened up a whole new way to develop my work. I've used it in dream interpretation and personal growth as well as for my artwork. As an artist-blacksmith, analog drawing with sumi brush and India ink has enabled me to express very specific feelings and states of being with bars of iron.

You may find parts of the book unnecessarily complicated. I don't use everything in the book. But it's worth buying for the chapter on analog drawing. If you've ever had any doubts about your ability to express yourself in art, this book can dispel them completely.
40 internautes sur 43 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 I loved this book, thank you Betty. 3 novembre 1999
Par John R. Torres - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
This book took me from an average artist to an excellent artist. I can now draw portraits like a DaVinci. I now have a portfolio that I'm proud of. It taught me how to look with an "eye" of an artist, and I would recomend it to anyone who wishes to improve their ability to draw. There are lessons that teach you how to express your feeling in your art, no matter what the medium. I learned to view what I am trying to draw upside-down, and this way my mind doesn't change what I see. This is the second time I'm buying this book, since someone borrowed it and I lost it. For the price of about $6 this is a steal and a must have if you want to improve your drawing skills.
35 internautes sur 39 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 What an awakening of new consciousness! 7 juin 1998
Par maccabee@compuserve.com - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
I read this book as an optional "Directed Reading" for a course in Creative Problem-Solving with the University of Oklahoma. It is ironic that I had just completed all six of Frank Herbert's Dune novels just before beginning Drawing with all its exercises. My first thought was, "This is truly 'BeneGesserit' stuff!" The author guides the reader into total participation with the material and helps one to coax that much-suppressed "right brain" mode of perception and comprehension into awareness--and it is truly revelatory of the richness of one's immediate world which normally remains unexplored. Amazing it is, too, how one's skill in writing in images (i.e., drawing) improves with full interaction with the book. This is a good read, one which I suggest for those who would like to increase their awareness of the world around them and who would like to recapture some of the childlike wonder at the universe.
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