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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
 
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Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us [Format Kindle]

Daniel H. Pink
5.0 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (5 commentaires client)

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INTRODUCTION
The Puzzling Puzzles of Harry Harlow and Edward Deci


In the middle of the last century, two young scientists conducted experiments that should have changed the world— but did not. Harry F. Harlow was a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin who, in the 1940s, established one of the world’s first laboratories for studying primate behavior. One day in 1949, Harlow and two colleagues gathered eight rhesus monkeys for a two- week experiment on learning. The researchers devised a simple mechanical puzzle like the one pictured on the next page. Solving it required three steps: pull out the vertical pin, undo the hook, and lift the hinged cover. Pretty easy for you and me, far more challenging for a thirteen- pound lab monkey.

Harlow’s puzzle in the starting (left) and solved (right) positions.

The experimenters placed the puzzles in the monkeys’ cages to observe how they reacted— and to prepare them for tests of their problem- solving prowess at the end of the two weeks. But almost immediately, something strange happened. Unbidden by any outside urging and unprompted by the experimenters, the monkeys began playing with the puzzles with focus, determination, and what looked like enjoyment. And in short order, they began figuring out how the contraptions worked. By the time Harlow tested the monkeys on days 13 and 14 of the experiment, the primates had become quite adept. They solved the puzzles frequently and quickly; two- thirds of the time they cracked the code in less than sixty seconds.

Now, this was a bit odd. Nobody had taught the monkeys how to remove the pin, slide the hook, and open the cover. Nobody had rewarded them with food, affection, or even quiet applause when they succeeded. And that ran counter to the accepted notions of how primates— including the bigger- brained, less hairy primates known as human beings— behaved.

Scientists then knew that two main drives powered behavior. The first was the biological drive. Humans and other animals ate to sate their hunger, drank to quench their thirst, and copulated to satisfy their carnal urges. But that wasn’t happening here. “Solution did not lead to food, water, or sex gratification,” Harlow reported.1 But the only other known drive also failed to explain the monkeys’ peculiar behavior. If biological motivations came from within, this second drive came from without— the rewards and punishments the environment delivered for behaving in certain ways. This was certainly true for humans, who responded exquisitely to such external forces. If you promised to raise our pay, we’d work harder. If you held out the prospect of getting an A on the test, we’d study longer. If you threatened to dock us for showing up late or for incorrectly completing a form, we’d arrive on time and tick every box. But that didn’t account for the monkeys’ actions either. As Harlow wrote, and you can almost hear him scratching his head, “The behavior obtained in this investigation poses some interesting questions for motivation theory, since significant learning was attained and efficient performance maintained without resort to special or extrinsic incentives.” What else could it be?

To answer the question, Harlow offered a novel theory— what amounted to a third drive: “The performance of the task,” he said, “provided intrinsic reward.” The monkeys solved the puzzles simply because they found it gratifying to solve puzzles. They enjoyed it. The joy of the task was its own reward.

If this notion was radical, what happened next only deepened the confusion and controversy. Perhaps this newly discovered drive— Harlow eventually called it “intrinsic motivation”— was real. But surely it was subordinate to the other two drives. If the monkeys were rewarded— with raisins!— for solving the puzzles, they’d no doubt perform even better. Yet when Harlow tested that approach, the monkeys actually made more errors and solved the puzzles less frequently. “Introduction of food in the present experiment,” Harlow wrote, “served to disrupt performance, a phenomenon not reported in the literature.”

Now, this was really odd. In scientific terms, it was akin to rolling a steel ball down an inclined plane to measure its velocity— only to watch the ball fl oat into the air instead. It suggested that our understanding of the gravitational pulls on our behavior was inadequate— that what we thought were fixed laws had plenty of loopholes. Harlow emphasized the “strength and persistence” of the monkeys’ drive to complete the puzzles. Then he noted: It would appear that this drive . . . may be as basic and strong as the [other] drives. Furthermore, there is some reason to believe that [it] can be as efficient in facilitating learning.2

At the time, however, the prevailing two drives held a tight grip on scientific thinking. So Harlow sounded the alarm. He urged scientists to “close down large sections of our theoretical junkyard” and offer fresher, more accurate accounts of human behavior.3 He warned that our explanation of why we did what we did was incomplete. He said that to truly understand the human condition, we had to take account of this third drive.

Then he pretty much dropped the whole idea. Rather than battle the establishment and begin offering a more complete view of motivation, Harlow abandoned this contentious line of research and later became famous for studies on the science of affection.4 His notion of this third drive bounced around the psychological literature, but it remained on the periphery— of behavioral science and of our understanding of ourselves. It would be two decades before another scientist picked up the thread that Harlow had so provocatively left on that Wisconsin laboratory table. In the summer of 1969, Edward Deci was a Carnegie Mellon University psychology graduate student in search of a dissertation topic. Deci, who had already earned an MBA from Wharton, was intrigued by motivation but suspected that scholars and businesspeople had misunderstood it. So, tearing a page from the Harlow playbook, he set out to study the topic with the help of a puzzle.

Deci chose the Soma puzzle cube, a then popular Parker Brothers offering that, thanks to YouTube, retains something of a cult following today. The puzzle, shown below, consists of seven plastic pieces— six comprising four one- inch cubes, one comprising three one- inch cubes. Players can assemble the seven pieces into a few million possible combinations— from abstract shapes to recognizable objects.

The seven pieces of the Soma puzzle unassembled (left) and then fashioned into one of several million possible configurations

For the study, Deci divided participants, male and female university students, into an experimental group (what I’ll call Group A) and a control group (what I’ll call Group B). Each participated in three one- hour sessions held on consecutive days.

Here’s how the sessions worked: Each participant entered a room and sat at a table on top of which were the seven Soma puzzle pieces, drawings of three puzzle configurations, and copies of Time, The New Yorker, and Playboy. (Hey, it was 1969.) Deci sat on the opposite end of the table to explain the instructions and to time performance with a stopwatch.

In the first session, members of both groups had to assemble the Soma pieces to replicate the configurations before them. In the second session, they did the same thing with different drawings— only this time Deci told Group A that they’d be paid $1 (the equivalent of nearly $6 today) for every configuration they successfully reproduced. Group B, meanwhile, got new drawings but no pay. Finally, in the third session, both groups received new drawings and had to reproduce them for no compensation, just as in session one. (See the table below.)

The twist came midway through each session. After a participant had assembled the Soma puzzle pieces to match two of the three drawings, Deci halted the proceedings. He said that he was going to give them a fourth drawing—but to choose the right one, he needed to feed their completion times into a computer. And— this being the late 1960s, when room- straddling mainframes were the norm and desktop PCs were still a decade away— that meant he had to leave for a little while.

On the way out, he said, “I shall be gone only a few minutes, you may do whatever you like while I’m gone.” But Deci wasn’t really plugging numbers into an ancient teletype. Instead, he walked to an adjoining room connected to the experiment room by a one- way window. Then, for exactly eight minutes, he watched what people did when left alone. Did they continue fiddling with the puzzle, perhaps attempting to reproduce the third drawing? Or did they do something else— page through the magazines, check out the centerfold, stare into space, catch a quick nap?

In the first session, not surprisingly, there wasn’t much difference between what the Group A and Group B participants did during that secretly watched eight- minute free- choice period. Both continued playing with the puzzle, on average, for between three and a half and four minutes, suggesting they found it at least somewhat interesting.

On the second day, during which Group A participants were paid for each successful configuration and Group B participants were not, the unpaid group behaved mostly as they had during the first free- choice period. But the paid group suddenly got really interested in Soma puzzles. On average, the...

Revue de presse

"Pink makes a convincing case that organizations ignore intrinsic motivation at their peril."
-Scientific American

"Persuasive . . .Harnessing the power of intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic remuneration can be thoroughly satisfying and infinitely more rewarding."
-Miami Herald

"These lessons are worth repeating, and if more companies feel emboldened to follow Mr. Pink's advice, then so much the better."
-Wall Street Journal

"Pink is rapidly acquiring international guru status . . . He is an engaging writer, who challenges and provokes."
-Financial Times

"Pink's ideas deserve a wide hearing. Corporate boards, in fact, could do well by kicking out their pay consultants for an hour and reading Pink's conclusions instead."
-Forbes

"Pink's deft traversal of research at the intersection of psychology and economics make this a worthwhile read-no sticks necessary."
-SEED

"[Pink] continues his engaging exploration of how we work."
-Inc. Magazine

"Pink's a gifted writer who turns even the heaviest scientific study into something digestible-and often amusing-without losing his intellectual punch."
-New York Post

"A worthwhile read. It reminds us that those of us on the right side of the brain are driven furthest and fastest in pursuit of what we love."
-Minneapolis Star Tribune

"Pink's analysis--and new model--of motivation offers tremendous insight into our deepest nature."
-Publishers Weekly

"Important reading...an integral addition to a growing body of literature that argues for a radical shift in how businesses operate."
-Kirkus

"Drive is the rare book that will get you to think and inspire you to act. Pink makes a strong, science-based case for rethinking motivation--and then provides the tools you need to transform your life."
-Dr. Mehmet Oz, co-author of YOU: The Owners Manual


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7 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
Par B. Eric
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
Daniel Pink s'est appuyé sur les travaux de scientifiques comme Alfie Kohn, Deci,... Le but de ce livre est de réduire le gap qu'il y a entre les connaissances et apports de la science et le comportement des entreprises dans la gestion de ses collaborateurs et leaders. Daniel Pink nous explique pourquoi bien souvent les méthodes traditionnelles de management ne fonctionnent pas dans notre monde et freinent la créativité pourtant normalement au centre de la croissance future de notre vielle Europe. Ce livre nous aide à créer un environnement favorisant la motivation intrinsèque que ce soit dans notre milieu professionnel ou dans l'éducation de nos enfants, de nos étudiants.
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2 internautes sur 2 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 également disponible en français 24 décembre 2011
Par leducs
Format:Format Kindle
une excellente lecture pour tous ceux qui ont compris que la motivation ne se limite pas à l'utilisation de la carotte et du baton. J'en profite pour signaler qu'une traduction française est disponible sous le titre "La vérité sur ce qui nous motive" (en papier et en électronique).
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6 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Très utile 27 juin 2010
Par lectrice
Format:Broché
Un livre facile à lire, avec beaucoup d'éléments concrets éclairants. J'ai aimé les exemples inspirants, mais surtout le fait que le livre soit rempli de propositions concrètes. La seconde moitié du livre contient une série de mesures que l'on peut prendre, suivant sa situation (entreprises, profs...) afin de favoriser la motivation et la créativité des gens avec lesquels on travaille.
Constructif !
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5.0 étoiles sur 5 Inspiring book 12 mai 2011
Par LaurenceB
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
The content of this book is fascinating; it describes extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivations, explains the schemes that have worked, in the past - and no longer work nowadays. Inspiring book which help us to question some mechanisms which have been in place for so long (ie education, Business, etc.). I highly recommend this book; give lots of tips on how to grow in this society.
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1 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 revelation 24 novembre 2011
Format:Broché
voici un livre booster d energie de créativité et qui à changer les objectifs de vie de façon radicale

bravo
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