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Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali [Anglais] [Broché]

Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot

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12 janvier 1984 Cambridge Middle East Library (Livre 4)
This account of Egyptian society in the reign of Muhammad Ali traces the beginnings of the nation state in Egypt. It considers Muhammad Ali as part of a social group whose economic interests led them in the direction of trade with Europe as a means of raising money for further investments. They attempted to increase agricultural exports and to use the profits to create industry; then, following the logic of imperialists, their next step was to seek to conquer the surrounding areas to find markets for their industries and sources of raw materials. These policies brought them into conflict with their suzerain, the Ottoman sultan, and with England, since England needed markets in the Middle East. England sought to destroy the new regime in Egypt as a means of exerting influence on the region. In carrying out these economic changes, the country underwent a series of internal developments that were to revolutionize the structure and shape of Egyptian society. The rules of landownership were altered and large estates were formed, Egyptian fallahin were drafted into the army, and the administration was Egyptianized, establishing the groundwork for a nation state.

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Much that was written about the history of Egypt in the nineteenth century arose from a premise that the reign of Muhammad Ali ushered in a new form of government and a new economic system, both of which turned Egypt into a modern nation state. Lire la première page
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Couverture | Copyright | Table des matières | Extrait | Index | Quatrième de couverture
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Amazon.com: 5.0 étoiles sur 5  3 commentaires
11 internautes sur 11 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A great book 16 octobre 2006
Par Mr Bassil A MARDELLI - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
Muhammad Ali Pasha was the Viceroy of Egypt for almost forty-four years until the middle nineteenth century and is known as the founder of modern Egypt.

His ascendancy to power began when he was appointed second in command to Albanian force the Ottomans sent to Egypt to evacuate the French.

(There is an unconfirmed story that Ali rescued from drowning the Ottoman Commander of the fleet and then his sequel of promotions started to surface).

Muhammad Ali could not squash the plot against him by the English Empire when he extended his influence to control greater Syria, threatening the Sublime Port as far as Istanbul.

Britain also forced him to renounce his claims on Hijaz and Crete.

Russia, Austria and Great Britain granted him hereditary over Egypt pursuant to the London convention of July 15 1840, on condition that he withdrew from greater Syria and Mount Lebanon.

Pages 233 and 235 describe the efforts made by the Egyptians to thrive Beirut Port to encourage the trade of silk and cotton textiles to Europe.

In fact the word `Money' is translated into `Massari' (Arabic) in reference to Masri (Arabic) i.e. Egyptian. This term has been in use up to now since the days the Egyptian Army came to Beirut on route to Syria hinterland.

The book is full of substantiated reference to Mohammed Ali achievements and to the works of his dynasty.

Such was the importance of the Albanian Viceroy to Egypt that his dynasty remained in power for about 150 years, until 1952.

Super powers' interests, and counter plotting behind the Khedive's back, characterized his rise and fall in one full circle. There was no room for another `Empire' to be formed in the Middle East after the demise of the defunct Ottomans `The sick man of Europe'.

Egypt was NOT permitted to be the one to replace the Ottoman Empire.
3 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 The Birth of Modern Egypt 30 décembre 2001
Par Alessandro Bruno - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
This is an excellent book and it effectively describes the social, economic and indistrial transformation of Egypt during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha, often referred to as the founder of modern Egypt. As governor since 1805, in the aftermath of Napoleon's invasion of 1798 and subsequent British aided Ottoman intervention in 1801, he undertook a series of policies aimed at re-organizing the authority through the centralization of military and economic power to make Egypt an imperial state within the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad Ali instituted a policy of military conscription that effectively replaced the Janissary system that had existed prior to the nineteenth century. He shunned the influence of Istanbul in favour of France, whose expertise in military arts and technical advances were necessary to accomplish the reforms required to modernize the army and society.
A principal characteristic of these reforms was a process of industrialization conceived to build local capacity and in the manufacture of military equipment and a parallel capacity in the production of consumer goods to do away with dependency on imports. The state managed the industrialization process and the economy in general through a system of protective trade mechanisms and monopolies intended to guarantee the state's exclusive ownership of the means of production and distribution. Significant advancements in infrastructure and an administrative shift in the organization of land tenure that renewed agricultural growth accompanied the industrialization drive. By the end of his reign Muhammad Ali succeeded in establishing a hereditary governorship in Egypt and de-facto autonomy from Istanbul, though his ambitious industrial experiment did not survive him.
The high costs of manufacturing and idiosyncrasies inherent in the monopolistic management system dealt a deathblow to Egyptian industry by the middle of the nineteenth century. The book analyzes these issues through a study of the characteristics and effects of industrialization under Muhammad Ali through an analysis of his administrative and agricultural reforms, a survey of the military and consumer manufacturing activities. It also discusses the problems that eventually caused the failure of industrialization in Egypt.
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Excellent history and insight into an important and formative period in history.Well written and documented this is a must read. 17 mai 2013
Par Howard E. Glad - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
This is a fascinating narrative for anyone serious about understanding Middle Eastern history and geopolitics. This is a seminal text for any serious discourse on regional affairs, and a keen insight to how and why Muhammad Ali transformed the course of mideast history then and now.
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