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Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World [Anglais] [Relié]

Paul Collier

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23 internautes sur 26 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Really insightful. 4 août 2013
Par Gaetan Lion - Publié sur
Format:Relié|Commentaire client Vine pour produit gratuit (De quoi s'agit-il?)
This is an extremely insightful book on the subject. Paul Collier conveys this is a complex subject ill fitted to the simple binomial outcomes (yes it is good; no it is bad) adopted by the media, politicians, business lobbyists, and even economists. The issue is not whether migration is good or bad but what is the optimal rate of migration for a specific country. He makes a case that there is an optimal migration level or rate. And, if we leave migration to itself, it will exceed the optimal level and eventually hurt.

The social effects of migration follow an inverse-U shape, with gains from moderate migration and losses from high migration. Moderate migration is liable to confer overall social benefits, whereas sustained rapid migration would risk substantial costs. Also, a low-density country such as Canada and Australia can accommodate a far greater rate of migration than high-density countries such as Western European ones.

Moderate migration has modestly positive economic effects on the indigenous population in the medium term. Any long-term effects are negligible. In contrast, sustained rapid migration lowers the living standard of the indigenous population, both through wage effect and due to the need to share scarce public capital.

Collier builds an elegant model that explains the rate of migration from one country to another. The rate of migration is determined by: 1) the width of the income gap (the wider it is the faster the migration rate from the low-income to high-income country); 2) the level of income in country of origin (the lower the income the higher the emigration rate); and 3) the size of the diaspora in the host country (the larger the diaspora the higher the immigration rate into the host country).

The diaspora is one key variable in migration. The larger it is, the more it drives migration into the host country. Also, the greater the distance in income, culture, language between the two countries (of origin vs host) the more likely a diaspora will form and grow rapidly. But, the more established and large is a diaspora the lower the rate of absorption of the migrants into the indigenous culture. The migrants will behave not as migrants seeking to integrate themselves into a new culture but instead as settlers with no desire to integrate themselves. Collier often makes this critical distinction between "migrants" and "settlers." The migrants will speak their own language, and often not speak the language of the host. They will often reject the culture and norms of the host and in some cases even attempt to reject the host laws (Muslims migrants in Europe seeking Sharia laws). Diasporas mechanics cause them to literally grow forever. That is unless specific policy measures to reduce migration and increase the absorption rate are taken.

Collier refers to the intriguing work of Robert Putnam, a leading social scientist, that indicates that the greater the proportion of immigrants in a community the lower the level of trust between immigrants and the indigenous population, but also the lower the level of trust within the indigenous population (a surprising result). High trust leads to high absorption rate. Low trust leads to low absorption rate and rising diasporas. The migrants turn into settlers.

The US has been far more successful at integrating migrants to its own culture than Europe. In Europe multiculturalism has risen whereby migrants are resistant to integration and insistent on maintaining their own culture thereby not adopting the local norms, not speaking the host country's language, not participating in the labor force, and even not accepting the country's laws. He quotes, Angela Merkel as stating that multiculturalism has been an utter failure. However, the cultural and linguistic gap between emigrants and host countries is far wider in Europe vs the US. This is typified by migrants' Islamic fundamentalism that affects Western Europe much more than the US. Multiculturalism combined with generous welfare systems (the European situation) lead to lower absorption rate based on the research from Ruud Koopmans.
14 internautes sur 16 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A Useful Introduction to a Complex Topic of Importance Worldwide 2 septembre 2013
Par Roger D. Launius - Publié sur
Format:Relié|Commentaire client Vine pour produit gratuit (De quoi s'agit-il?)
FDR once famously said that the Daughters of the American Revolution: "Remember, remember always that all of us, and you and I especially, are descended from immigrants and revolutionists." It was the tritest of all comments, reminding everyone that Americans of every background are all descended from immigrants. This book takes as its focus FDR's dictum and explores episodes in the immigrant experience in both the United States and beyond. It offers case studies on the specific interactions of those from other places on the globe with those already in America.

The author, famous for his book "The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It" (2007), a professor of economics at Oxford University and he seeks here to first describe what drives migration--his answer is economics, surprise--and the desire to better oneself. He focuses on migration patterns from both the perspective of the individuals migrating and from the nations and cultures that they migrate to. His emphasis on the social, economic, and political costs for both the country of origin and the receiving country is certainly useful.

Four major parts--the questions and the process, host societies and their response to migration, the migrants themselves, and the fate of those left behind--lead naturally into a final section that deals with policy considerations and what might societies do in the future to deal with this issue. Collier's conclusions suggest that the issues are much more complex than those who support or those that oppose immigration.

Interesting, Collier does not talk at length about an historical and policy question that most interests me, the challenge of highly-skilled immigrants, especially those with scientific and technological capabilities. Because of this situation, in the U.S. and also elsewhere immigration policy has special categories for highly-skilled migrants. How might we seek to understand how high-skilled immigration began, its evolutionary process over time, and how it has affected modern American society? For the U.S., the 1952 McCarran-Walter and the 1965 Hart-Celler immigration acts have been critical to this historical trend. I would like to see how this history has affected policy debates, the language of the federal immigration laws, and demographic data for immigrants arriving before and after the implementation of these laws.

What he does emphasize, however, is related to the question of highly-skilled immigrants. Those who emigrate from the poorest countries tend to be better educated than those left behind. They also tend to be highly industrious and ambitious. Accordingly, their departure from their home nations leaves that nation that much worse off since they are no longer contributing to a successful future. Collier questions whether those people should be permitted to leave, but even there Collier is unwilling to set up legal proscriptions on an individual's liberty. He wants to strike a balance on how best to benefit both losing and gaining countries in the immigration issue. The real question here, obviously, is how do we know where that balance might be and how to achieve it? There is no good answer to this question offered here; nor as far as I can see does one exist anywhere.

Despite this, Collier offers an easy to understand primer on the issues of immigration in the modern world. Effectively, he presents case studies of rationales for immigration, worldwide policy considerations, and questions of national identity and ideals.
7 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Informative, balanced analysis on migration's impact and a reasonable argument on when it should be controlled 4 septembre 2013
Par Sreeram Ramakrishnan - Publié sur
Format:Relié|Commentaire client Vine pour produit gratuit (De quoi s'agit-il?)
Despite a mostly UK-centric narrative, this dense (but succinct) treatment of migration - mostly framed in the context of migration's impact on the host, migrant and the society of origin - provides an excellent review and critique of socio-economic theories/philosophies that have shaped views on immigration. Collier methodically explains the key factors that are likely to influence the migration rate and then starts delineating the impact on
all parties concerned. The discussion around the impact of the size of diaspora, assimilative tendencies and income gap differentials are interesting and provide a reasonable framework to think about motives than rely on politician/media-created generalisms that tend to appeal to emotions than reason. Throughout the book, Collier manages to provide a mostly impartial and consistent view of migration and its effect before making a strong ethical case for why a society can (and should) control migration.

Collier's examples typically refer to the low-skill migration and his views on high-skill migration is nuanced and guided more by ethical arguments than utilitarian arguments (the very same ones he seemed to use to rationalize low-skill migration). Readers of a particular political persuasion can of course find cherrypick some observations to justify their view, but the relatively reduced focus on high-skill migration is an opportunity lost to add more clarity to the discussion. While much has been written on IT sector in the US, the medical skill migration to UK (and US) poses ethical and economic arguments far more pronounced than any other high-skill sector. Collier could have devoted more space to address high-skill migration.

Collier also focuses on country-to-country migrations;regional migrations such as those seen in larger countries is not covered in this discussion. Nor are examples of societies that see significant immigration and emigration at the same time (low-skill immigrants from neighboring countries to India - and Indians emigrating to UK/US) are covered extensively. It would've been interesting to see how Collier's framework will adapt to such examples - though extreme examples like Dubai is used extensively in discussions.

The pedantic style makes for relatively difficult reading - but it is a complicated topic and Collier did a great service not to oversimplify. Nevertheless, the book is very well-edited with virtually no repetition of core ideas or examples, or self-references. A very informative read.
7 internautes sur 8 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 A Brief Primer on Migration 17 juillet 2013
Par Michael Griswold - Publié sur
Format:Relié|Commentaire client Vine pour produit gratuit (De quoi s'agit-il?)
Paul Collier in his new book Exodus: How Migration is Changing Our World gives the reader a fairly brief though often weighty look at the costs of migration from multiple angles and perspectives. He considers migration from the aspects of the social, economic, and political costs for both the country of origin and the receiving country. The end result is a series of conclusions that support neither the pro-immigration or anti-immigration camps.

Collier tries to sanitize the emotion that migration issue will inevitably create, which even he acknowledges is difficult, if not impossible. Overall, in spite of his previous work, which makes a definite stand on the immigration issue, I thought Collier did a fair job of laying out the main consequences of the immigration issue and let the reader decide what he/she may.

The book could be a slog to someone not used to academic writing because the immigration issue is quite complex and I'm concerned that the density of the writing may scare off people who want things quick and easy. It will also be complicated by the very fact that people come into this debate with opinions one way or the other.

How can one possibly read any book on the topic and suspend their judgment? Collier makes a valiant effort and produces a good overview of the issues that surround the migration issue, but I'm leery of any book that tries to sanitize a subject that spawns so many emotions.
5 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
1.0 étoiles sur 5 Scary Solutions from a Radical pProfessor 19 mars 2014
Par Modeh B'Miktzat - Publié sur
Exodus was difficult for me to read because the author, Paul Collier, advocates such radical ideas. I am blessed to live in the United States and not in the sinking European Union, where a radical ‘elite’ is driving radical solutions. Prof. Collier states “More generally, in much of the high-income world the concept of the nation-state has become unfashionable both with educated elites and with the young.” I run in very educated circles and no one has ever articulated doing away with the nation-state, or with borders. We subscribe to nationalism. Collier focuses on working institutions as having advanced the rich countries whereas in poor countries they have yet to develop. Economic studies attribute great importance to the role of property rights as a backbone among institutions, one that advances economic growth. But Collier’s Exodus focuses on the rights of the indigent, particularly in 3rd world countries, to emigrate to wealthy countries. In a large sense he supports the erosion of private property rights as practiced in the USA. Collier excoriates 4 countries for their high restrictions on immigration: Canada and Australia, defined as vastly underpopulated and who restrict immigration to the highly educated; Russia, for excluding the overpopulated Chinese from inhabiting Siberia (in my mind, donating Siberia to China), and Israel is battered for not allowing what Collier defines as indigenous emigres to return. (Can anyone identify one single democratically functioning Arab country? Israel has taken in millions of immigrants but refuses to self-destruct! But a racist Collier doesn’t recognize those immigrants.)
And for those of you who have limited the number of your offspring so that you can provide for children’s higher-education, Collier would have you support the world’s most indigent through immigration in particular, when he notes that they do not limit the size of their families – in other words, a never ending and ever increasing gush of immigrants.
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