This book presents for the first time in English an overview of the theoretical debates on architecture in nineteenth-century Austria and Germany. Drawing on a vast number of writings by architects, historians, philosophers and critics, Mitchell Schwarzer offers an exhaustive history of the principal debates on style, industry, nationalism, iron technology, and artistic expression, all of which inform modern architecture. He argues that the history of architecture in the modern era cannot be explained according to the simple evolution or progression of structural, functional, or artistic forces. Rather, he establishes modernity as a series of debates on the parameters of architectural knowledge itself and the identity of the architectural profession in a rapidly industrialising world. Describing theory through its conflicts and unresolved questions, Schwarzer uncovers the complex nature of modern pluralism, one that is still relevant in the late twentieth century.