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How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci: Seven Steps to Genius Every Day
 
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How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci: Seven Steps to Genius Every Day [Format Kindle]

Michael J. Gelb
5.0 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (1 commentaire client)

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  • Longueur : 336 pages
  • Langue : Anglais
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Introduction: Your Brain Is Much Better Than You Think


Although it is hard to overstate Leonardo da Vinci's brilliance, recent scientific research reveals that you probably underestimate your own capabilities. You are gifted with virtually unlimited potential for learning and creativity. Ninety-five percent of what we know about the capabilities of the human brain has been learned in the last twenty years. Our schools, universities, and corporations are only beginning to apply this emerging understanding of human potential. Let's set the stage for learning how to think like Leonardo by considering the contemporary view of intelligence and some results of the investigation into the nature and extent of your brain's potential.

Most of us grew up with a concept of intelligence based on the traditional IQ test. The IQ test was originated by Alfred Binet (1857-1911) to measure, objectively, comprehension, reasoning, and judgment. Binet was motivated by a powerful enthusiasm for the emerging discipline of psychology and a desire to overcome the cultural and class prejudices of late nineteenth-century France in the assessment of children's academic potential. Although the traditional concept of IQ was a breakthrough at the time of its formulation, contemporary research shows that it suffers from two significant flaws.

The first flaw is the idea that intelligence is fixed at birth and immutable. Although individuals are endowed genetically with more or less talent in a given area, researchers such as Buzan, Machado, Wenger, and many others have shown that IQ scores can be raised significantly through appropriate training. In a recent statistical review of more than two hundred studies of IQ published in the journal Nature, Bernard Devlin concluded that genes account for no more than 48 percent of IQ. Fifty-two percent is a function of prenatal care, environment, and education.

The second weakness in the commonly held concept of intelligence is the idea that the verbal and mathematical reasoning skills measured by IQ tests (and SATs) are the sine qua nons of intelligence. This narrow view of intelligence has been thoroughly debunked by contemporary psychological research. In his modern classic, Frames of Mind (1983), psychologist Howard Gardner introduced the theory of multiple intelligences, which posits that each of us possesses at least seven measurable intelligences (in later work Gardner and his colleagues catalogued twenty-five different subintelligences). The seven intelligences, and some genius exemplars (other than Leonardo da Vinci, who was a genius in all of these areas) of each one, are:

Logical-Mathematical—Stephen Hawking, Isaac Newton, Marie Curie
Verbal-Linguistic—William Shakespeare, Emily Dickinson, Jorge Luis Borges
Spatial-Mechanical—Michelangelo, Georgia O'Keeffe, Buckminster Fuller
Musical—Mozart, George Gershwin, Ella Fitzgerald
Bodily-Kinesthetic—Morihei Ueshiba, Muhammad Ali, F. M. Alexander
Interpersonal-Social—Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi, Queen Elizabeth I
Intrapersonal (Self-knowledge)—Viktor Frankl, Thich Nhat Hanh, Mother Teresa

The theory of multiple intelligences is now accepted widely and when combined with the realization that intelligence can be developed throughout life, offers a powerful inspiration for aspiring Renaissance men and women.

In addition to expanding the understanding of the nature and scope of intelligence, contemporary psychological research has revealed startling truths about the extent of your potential. We can summarize the results with the phrase: Your brain is much better than you think. Appreciating your phenomenal cortical endowment is a marvelous point of departure for a practical study of Da Vincian thinking. Contemplate the following: your brain

is more flexible and multidimensional than any supercomputer.
can learn seven facts per second, every second, for the rest of your life and still have plenty of room left to learn more.
will improve with age if you use it properly.
is not just in your head. According to renowned neuroscientist Dr. Candace Pert, ". . . intelligence is located not only in the brain but in cells that are distributed throughout the body.... The traditional separation of mental processes, including emotions, from the body is no longer valid."
is unique. Of the six billion people currently living and the more than ninety billion people who have ever lived, there has never, unless you are an identical twin, been anyone quite like you. Your creative gifts, your fingerprints, your expressions, your DNA, your dreams, are unprecedented and unique.
is capable of making a virtually unlimited number of synaptic connections or potential patterns of thought.

This last point was established first by Pyotr Anokhin of Moscow University, a student of the legendary psychological pioneer Ivan Pavlov. Anokhin staggered the entire scientific community when he published his research in 1968 demonstrating that the minimum number of potential thought patterns the average brain can make is the number 1 followed by 10.5 million kilometers of typewritten zeros.

Anokhin compared the human brain to "a multidimensional musical instrument that could play an infinite number of musical pieces simultaneously." He emphasized that each of us is gifted with a birthright of virtually unlimited potential. And he proclaimed that no man or woman, past or present, has fully explored the capacities of the brain. Anokhin would probably agree, however, that Leonardo da Vinci could serve as a most inspiring example for those of us wishing to explore our full capacities.


LEARNING FROM LEONARDO

Baby ducks learn to survive by imitating their mothers. Learning through imitation is fundamental to many species, including humans. As we become adults, we have a unique advantage: we can choose whom and what to imitate. We can also consciously choose new models to replace the ones we outgrow. It makes sense, therefore, to choose the best "role models" to guide and inspire us toward the realization of our potential.

So, if you want to become a better golfer, study Ben Hogan, Jack Nicklaus, and Tiger Woods. If you want to become a leader, study Winston Churchill, Abraham Lincoln, and Queen Elizabeth I. And if you want to be a Renaissance man or woman, study Leon Battista Alberti, Thomas Jefferson, Hildegard von Bingen, and best of all, Leonardo da Vinci.

In The Book of Genius Tony Buzan and Raymond Keene make the world's first objective attempt to rank the greatest geniuses of history. Rating their subjects in categories including "Originality," "Versatility," "Dominance-in-Field," "Universality-of-Vision, " and "Strength and Energy," they offer the following as their "top ten."
10. Albert Einstein
9. Phidias (architect of Athens)
8. Alexander the Great
7. Thomas Jefferson
6. Sir Isaac Newton
5. Michelangelo
4. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
3. The Great Pyramid Builders
2. William Shakespeare
And the greatest genius of all time, according to Buzan and Keene's exhaustive research? Leonardo da Vinci.

As Giorgio Vasari wrote of Leonardo in the original version of his The Lives of the Artists, "Heaven sometimes sends us beings who represent not humanity alone but divinity itself, so that taking them as our models and imitating them, our minds and the best of our intelligence may approach the highest celestial spheres. Experience shows that those who are led to study and follow the traces of these marvelous geniuses, even if nature gives them little or no help, may at least approach the supernatural works that participate in his divinity."

Our evolving understanding of the multiplicity of intelligence and the capacities of the brain suggests that nature gives us more help than we might have imagined. In How to Think like Leonardo da Vinci we will "study and follow the traces" of this most marvelous of all geniuses, bringing his wisdom and inspiration to your life, every day.

A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO GENIUS


In the pages that follow you will learn a practical approach, tested in experience, for applying the essential elements of Leonardo's genius to enrich your life. You will discover an exhilarating, original way of seeing and enjoying your world as you develop powerful strategies for creative thinking and new approaches to self-expression. You'll learn proven techniques for sharpening your senses, liberating your unique intelligence, and harmonizing body and mind. With Leonardo as your inspiration, you will make your life a work of art.

Although you may already be familiar with Da Vinci's life and work, you'll finish this book with a fresh perspective and a deeper appreciation for this most enigmatic figure. Looking at the world from his point of view, you may also get a taste of the loneliness genius brings. But I guarantee that you'll be uplifted by his spirit, inspired by his quest, and exalted by your association with him.

The book begins with a capsule review of the Renaissance and its parallels with our time, followed by a biographical sketch of Leonardo and a summary of his major accomplishments. The heart of the book is the discussion of the Seven Da Vincian Principles. These principles are drawn from an intensive study of the man and his methods. I've named them in Leonardo's native Italian. The good news is that Leonardo's principles will probably be intuitively obvious to you. You do not have to try to invent them in your life. Rather, like much of common sense, they need to be remembered, developed, and applied.
The Seven Da Vincian Principles are:

Curiosità—An insatiably curious approach to life and an unrelenting quest for continuous learning.

Dimostrazione—A commitment to test knowledge through experience, persistence, and a willingness to learn from mistakes.

Sensazione—The continual refinement of the senses, especially sight, as the means to enliven experience.

Sfumato (literally "Going up in Smoke")—A willingness to embrace ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty.

Arte/Scienza—The development of the balance between science and art, logic and imagination. "Whole-brain" thinking.

Corporalita—The cultivation of grace, ambidexterity, fitness, and poise.

Connessione—A recognition of and appreciation for the interconnectedness of all things and phenomena. Systems thinking.
Having read this far, you are already applying the first Da Vincian principle. Curiosità—the quest for continuous learning—comes first because the desire to know, to learn, and to grow is the powerhouse of knowledge, wisdom, and discovery.

If you are interested in thinking for yourself and freeing your mind from limiting habits and preconceptions, then you are on track for the second principle: Dimostrazione. In his search for truth, Da Vinci insisted on questioning conventional wisdom. He used the word dimostrazione to express the importance of learning for oneself, through practical experience.

Pause for a few moments, and recall the times in the past year when you felt most vividly alive. Chances are, your senses were heightened. Our third principle—Sensazione—focuses on sharpening the senses, consciously. Leonardo believed that refining sensory awareness was the key to enriching experience.

As you sharpen your senses, probe the depths of experience, and awaken your childlike powers of questioning, you will encounter increasing uncertainty and ambiguity. "Confusion endurance" is the most distinctive trait of highly creative people, and Leonardo probably possessed more of that trait than anyone who has ever lived. Principle number four—Sfumato—guides you to be more at home with the unknown, to make friends with paradox.

For balance and creativity to emerge from uncertainty requires principle number five—Arte/Scienza—or what we now call whole-brain thinking. But Da Vinci believed that balance was more than just mental. He exemplified and affirmed the importance of principle number six—Corporalita—the balance of body and mind. And if you appreciate patterns, relationships, connections, and systems—if you seek to understand how your dreams, goals, values, and highest aspirations can be integrated into your daily life—then you are already applying principle number seven: Connessione. Connessione ties everything together.

Each principle is highlighted by excerpts from the maestro's notebooks and illustrated with his sketches or paintings. This illumination is followed by some questions for reflection and self-assessment. These questions are designed to stimulate your thinking and inspire your application of the principles. The questions are followed by a program of practical exercises for cultivating a personal and professional Renaissance. To get the most benefit from How to Think like Leonardo da Vinci, read the whole book first, without doing the exercises. Just contemplate the questions for reflection and self-assessment. After this preview, review the explanation of each principle and then do the exercises. Some of the exercises are easy and fun, while others require challenging inner work. All are designed to bring the spirit of the maestro to your daily life. In addition to the exercises, you will find an annotated reading and resource list to guide you in exploring and applying each principle. The reading list includes recommendations on the Renaissance, the history of ideas, the nature of genius, and, of course, the life and work of Leonardo.

In the final section of the book you will discover "The Beginner's Da Vinci Drawing Course," and you'll also learn how you can participate in a history-making project that embodies the essence of the Da Vincian spirit.

Revue de presse

"By capturing the very essence of DaVinci's life and genius...Michael Gelb guides us in a discovery and understanding of the boundlessness of our own full human potential."—Deepak Chopra, author of The Path to Love and Ageless Body, Timeless Mind

"A brilliant, practical guide to awakening and training our vast, unused resources of intelligence and ability."—Ted Hughes, author of Birthday Letters

"Buy it. Read it! Live it!"—Tony Buzan, author of The Book of Genius and The Mind Map Book


From the Trade Paperback edition.

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3 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
Par Un client
Format:Broché
Top quality creative thinking can be achieved by most people, but not accidentially and not without real effort. To rise to the level of great creative thinkers we must sit at their feet and learn from them. You can do that with the greatest thinker of all time by reading this book, which reveals the secrets of Loenardo Da Vinci's thinking as no other work ever has. On learning Loenardo's secrets, you'll ask yourself "Why didn't I think of that?" The answer is that you could have, you can and you will by reading books such as this and others such as the new creative thinking book Why Didn't I Think of That? - Think the Unthinkable and Achieve Creative Greatness.
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Amazon.com: 4.2 étoiles sur 5  192 commentaires
377 internautes sur 407 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Superficial Observations and Brilliant Self-Help Exercises 28 novembre 2000
Par Donald Mitchell - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
This book is very hard for me to grade. It contains some of the best and worst material I have ever seen, all in the same book. That combination is unprecedented in my experience.
If the book were solely built around the exercises, I would say that it deserved more than five stars.
If the book were soley built around the analysis and history of Leonardo da Vinci as a thinker, I would grade it at two stars.
The exercises are so terrific that I urge you to read the book. I also urge you to see the text leading up to the exercises as merely an introduction to the excercises.
If you want to learn about Leonardo da Vinci as a thinker, I suggest you go elsewhere for that guidance. I do encourage you read the Leonardo notebooks directly. They are fascinating. While you are doing so, try to imagine yourself with the limited scientific knowledge of the day. One of the things that you will learn is the power of conceptualizing what is needed that is missing. This helps to set the goal that energizes those who then meet the goal. Leonardo had enormous influence in this way with his pioneering work on helicopters, submarines, parachutes, and many mechanical devices.
Research on creativity and innovation has shown that it is valuable to increase one's curiosity, testing of ideas, observation skills, openness to new ideas and ambiguity, whole-brained thinking, balance in life activities, and seeing systems connections. This book espouses those concepts as well. In fact, it felt to me like the author was more influenced by the creativity and innovation literature than by Leonardo. If the book had drawn on more of this kind of research, rather than just trying to oversimpify Leonardo da Vinci, it would have been a better book.
As I read the book, I did at least one exercise in each section. I found these exercises to be very well constructed and that I derived great personal value from the experiences they gave me. I think you will feel the same way, if you are like me and want to improve your ability to see, hear, feel and grasp.
The only totally inappropriate exercise I encountered was one that encouraged you to write backwards like Leonardo did. You should know that I am probably biased on this, for this habit of Leonardo's is primarily responsible for a miscommunication of his work that delayed the pursuit of many of his best ideas by others. Civilization is the poorer, as a result.
The book also has a lot of self-assessments to help you understand what you need to work on. I found these to be below-par in value.
The worst part of the book were the very poor reproductions of paintings by Leonardo. The Last Supper can barely be discerned. If images cannot be better reproduced than this, they should be left out of the book.
After you have thought about reading this book or actually do so, I suggest that you also question as to whether or not your goal should be to think more like Leonardo da Vinci. True, he was a great genius. But he had his drawbacks. Most of his ideas did not see fruition in his own lifetime. He also spent most of his time either entertaining noble patrons with songs and stories or with creating war machines. What legacy would you like to leave? A legacy can be shaped by your thoughts. What thoughts will expand your legacy. Mother Teresa did not have to think like Leonardo to leave a great legacy.
How can you think like yourself in better ways?
64 internautes sur 69 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Fuel the fires of your genius! 21 septembre 1998
Par Un client - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
Michael Gelb has written an insightful and challanging book. Not being a da Vinci scholar, but one always impressed by da Vinci's ideas and especially his drawings and paintings, this book increased my knowledge of this genius and challanged me to think that I could benefit greatly by thinking like Leonardo.
Gelb sets out seven Da Vincinian Principles and illustrates each with examples from da Vinci's life and work. He encourages the reader to assess oneself with regard to each of the principles and then presents an abundance of exercises to develop one's awareness of the principle and skill at using it.
I found myself, over the course of reading the book, using the principles as I observed the world around me throughout the day, listening to the sounds of nature, really watching birds in flight, wondering at the beautiful pumpkin from a friend's garden that I was peeling, seeding and chopping to make into soup. The latter exercise was further enhanced by pouring myself a glass of the chardonnay that went into the soup and truly tasting it and savouring it (my own version of an exercise found in the Sensazione chapter.) The last of the principles presented is Connessione. I understood this principle clearly as I reflected on the earth from which the grapes were grown, the grapes and all that nourished their growth, the many hands and minds and hearts that created the wine, packaged it, shipped and distributed it and the many consumers who were enjoying it.
Yes, I can say wholeheartedly that this book is worth buying, reading and keeping around as a guide filled with practical ideas and exercises (including a beginner's drawing course) for stimulating and encouraging one's self understanding and indiviual genius.
Da Vinci's passion to know kindled and sustained the fires of his genius. Gelb is obviously one touched by these fires and has thoughtfully extended a hand to the other passionate seekers to fuel the fires of their own genius.
111 internautes sur 123 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A great step towards becoming a free thinker! 9 février 2000
Par M. Rodriguez - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
I picked this book up after the title grabbed me from the bookstore shelf and was instantly hooked. I've always admired DaVinci greatly and couldn't resist reading anything that could shed some light on his creative thinking process.
Will reading this book make you a genius? Probably not. What it will do, however, is open up avenues in your mind that you probably never thought existed. It has some great techniques on how to "think outside the box" and will be helpful to anyone who needs to address a group of others on learning issues. (I am a training instructor and have discussed some of this book's techniques with my students)
I walked away from this book with a whole new outlook on learning and whole brain thinking, and have found myself reflecting on it when trying to compose creative writing and solve problems. The price of this book was well worth it...it has given me many, many returns on my investment.
69 internautes sur 75 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 The Magic Notebook. . . 23 janvier 2005
Par Charles Runels Md - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
This book is not for everyone. Here's how it helped me and here's a test to know if the book's for you:

If you really want to see the "world" (cliche' but I do mean the entire world: your dog, your business, your lover's response, the smell of air) in a new way and if you really try to do so, then you know how difficult a task it can be to catch a new glimpse or a new idea. Though it's not too difficult to find what other's have already pointed out, it's the place of prophets and poets and the great entrepreneurs to see something new. As a research chemist 20 years ago, and now as a physician involved in research, I use a very powerful tool that helps improve vision; the tool (the notebook)and good techniques for using it are described in this book.

I see peole buy notebooks and diaries for school and personal use but I don't know many people who catch the real power of this tool. You could read this whole book (How to Think Like...) and not catch the power of the tool without giving the notebook technique a try. You could try the technique and not catch the power unless you keep trying and keep revising techniques and keep trying to see and to hear and to block out the voice of your teachers who told you what to see and what to hear.

Einsten kept a notebook with him even when he went sailing. Another famous mathematician kept notes and had theories even about why the good guy is quicker in a western gun fight. King David must have kept an extensive notebook (we read some of his notes in the Psalms). Seems most people have the idea that personal notebooks are for 13 year old girls to decipher puberty. But ship captains, scientists, poets, businessmen (who mostly journal expenses), track stars (who keep up with workouts) and people who accomplish great things or bite off great fun keep journals.

Nope, I don't have a Nobel prize. But, I've made a few contributions with the help of notes. Even more importantly, keeping a journal (and this book gives possibly the best advice I've seen on how to keep a journal) enriches my life by allowing me to capture the new joke my or the fun adventure of a camping trip with my son.

As I stumble through literally rooms full of books in my home, if there were a fire, the books I would grab first would be the ones I wrote and scribbled over the past 20-plus years.

No! I cannot think like Leonardo Di Vinci. I don't want to. I also don't want to think like you or anyone else. But I do want to think like Leonardo in that I use some of the same tools that he and many others with excellent thinking and vision have used (for more tools you can see my book "Anytime...for as Long as You Want"). Even if I can't think with the brilliance of Leonardo, I can use the same tools to improve my own thinking.

The test to learn if this book is not for you:

If the idea of carrying a notebook with you to the next camping trip, to the grocery store, to the library, and to your mother-in-law's house sounds just too weird and nerdy to you, then this book will not be of much use to you. There are several other books about Leonardo that do a better job telling the story of the life of this great man; if you want to know more about Leonardo, read one of those instead.

--Charles Runels, MD
Author of "Anytime...for as Long as You Want: Strength, Genius, Libido, and Erection by Integrative Sex Transmutation (A 15-Day Course for Men to Improve Life and Sex)"
25 internautes sur 25 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A different form of self-help 25 octobre 2001
Par Wesley Myers - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
I really hate self-help books. I really do. Most of them spend 20 pages telling you how to help yourself and 250 talking about how wonderful it is to read the book you're reading.
But this book is different. I came upon this book very casually, not really looking for anything in particular. When I saw it, I knew that I had to have it. I have always loved da Vinci's art and his intellect - from the first time seeing the Mona Lisa in Paris as a teenager up to my latest trip to Florence a few months ago. But when I bought this book, it didn't occur to me that it might be in the genre of self-help because I was so fascinated with the subject, but that didn't matter once I started reading.
I really believe this book does give us a picture of how to think like da Vinci. The key is don't go into it expecting a lot, and you'll be pleased. Unlike some may perceive on buying this book, I never believed it to do so, and it never says, "You'll be a genius if you read this book." Mr. Gelb just describes da Vinci's methods of thinking, and credits da Vinci everywhere with multiple quotes. From start to finish, I don't think the author once tried to go off subject of how 'his (the author's) methods' were superior or any of the other self-help (...)- it's all credited to da Vinci. It's written fairly simply with daily exercises to produce the desired effects.
One thing that I find very beneficial in this book is that it gives a few paragraphs on how to help teach your children to think more broadly with each section. Having a child that is labled as 'difficult,' it helped me to understand him better, and to encourage his naturally intelligent behaviors such as curiosity when everyone has been trying to repress it...this to me is invaluable. By changing my thinking it really gave me a greater appreciation for a 3 year-old!
I only have one criticism of this book, where I truly believe the author inputs his own preferences exclusively - and that's mostly to do with the Sensazione exercises section in particular. Whether it's telling you to prefer Jazz over other music, or classical, I think his own opinions come through. But simultaneously I must add that his opinions are given as 'starting points' so to speak.
I have truly enjoyed this book. Although I haven't started the exercises (he suggests reading it thoroughly first) I feel that I have learned a great deal. It is also important to note that there is a companion workbook, which probably isn't necessary, but I'm going to buy it because I found this one to be a great book on improving insights and personal qualities.
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