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Intel Trinity,The: How Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and Andy Grove Built the World's Most Important Company
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Intel Trinity,The: How Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and Andy Grove Built the World's Most Important Company [Format Kindle]

Michael S. Malone

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Descriptions du produit

Revue de presse

“Through extensive and unprecedented access to Intel’s archives, Malone describes how each of these vital members of Intel brought various skills and talents to the company to make it the giant it is today.” (--Entrepreneur's 25 Amazing Business Books from 2014)

“This is business history at its best.” (Wall Street Journal)

“What’s been missing is an authoritative work that blends all the key people and the technology with a thorough, up-to-date business history. “The Intel Trinity” fills that gap.” (The Wall Street Journal)

“What he has produced is popular history, the tale of an epoch-defining industrial romp and the three men who led it.” (Washington Post)

“”The Intel Trinity” is a fine introduction to the founding myths legends of Silicon Valley.” (Salon)

Richly detailed, swiftly moving work of modern business history, recounting a truly world-changing technology and the people who made it possible. Essential for aspiring entrepreneurs, to say nothing of those looking for a view of how the modern, speed-of-light world came to be. (Kirkus Reviews (starred review))

“Michael Malone, one of the most interesting chroniclers of Silicon Valley, has produced a fascinating history of Intel. It’s a valuable study of innovation, great leadership, and colorful personalities. Anyone who wants to know how creativity leads to invention should read this wonderful book.” (Walter Isaacson, author of Steve Jobs)

“Few people capture the rhythms and values that fuel Silicon Valley as well as longtime journalist Michael S. Malone. In his latest book, he takes on the history of Intel, a company he started covering when most reporters were still using typewriters. He reveals his deep knowledge on every page.” (Reid Hoffman, cofounder & chairman of LinkedIn and co-author of The Alliance)

“Mike Malone’s book on Bob Noyce, Gordon Moore and Andy Grove - Silicon Valley’s Mount Rushmore - belongs with Walter Isaacson’s treatment of Steve Jobs, Neal Gabler’s opus on Walt Disney, and Tom Wolfe’s look at the first astronauts. Trinity is that big and that good.” (Rich Karlgaard, Publisher and Columnist, Forbes Magazine, Author of The Soft Edge)

Malone moves past the standard Intel mythology to uncover many aspects of the company’s ascendance that have been glossed over or lost to history. Malone gives long-overdue credit to the unsung heroes and inventors for their contributions. (Booklist)

Présentation de l'éditeur

Based on unprecedented access to the corporation’s archives, The Intel Trinity is the first full history of Intel Corporation—the essential company of the digital age— told through the lives of the three most important figures in the company’s history: Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, and Andy Grove.

Often hailed the “most important company in the world,” Intel remains, more than four decades after its inception, a defining company of the global digital economy. The legendary inventors of the microprocessor-the single most important product in the modern world-Intel today builds the tiny “engines” that power almost every intelligent electronic device on the planet.

But the true story of Intel is the human story of the trio of geniuses behind it. Michael S. Malone reveals how each brought different things to Intel, and at different times. Noyce, the most respected high tech figure of his generation, brought credibility (and money) to the company’s founding; Moore made Intel the world’s technological leader; and Grove, has relentlessly driven the company to ever-higher levels of success and competitiveness. Without any one of these figures, Intel would never have achieved its historic success; with them, Intel made possible the personal computer, Internet, telecommunications, and the personal electronics revolutions.

The Intel Trinity is not just the story of Intel’s legendary past; it also offers an analysis of the formidable challenges that lie ahead as the company struggles to maintain its dominance, its culture, and its legacy.

With eight pages of black-and-white photos.

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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur (beta) 4.5 étoiles sur 5  45 commentaires
25 internautes sur 26 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Wish someone would do a better job writing about these three amazing men, their relationship as well as the company they created 9 août 2014
Par Avram Miller - Publié sur
Format:Format Kindle|Achat vérifié
I was an executive at Intel from 1984-1999 (Corp. Vice President) and had the honor of knowing Noyce, Moore and Grove. I found the book odd. It was very superficial about so many things and then would go in depth on other things. The section on Andy's early life was overly detailed while there was not enough about Gordon. Frankly, the book feels lazy to me. It felt like Malone just wrote up thing he could easily find. He was suppose to have access to Intel's archives for whatever that is worth. We were thought not to keep much because of legal issues. There were also a number of factual errors.
I did benefit from learning more about the early years at Fairchild.
Hated the title by the way. It is worth reading this book as long as you realize that it is just a piece of the story of these three amazing men and even less a history of Intel.
21 internautes sur 23 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A Must Read Book 2 août 2014
Par Harold Kellman - Publié sur
This is a "must have" book for anyone who wants to know about the early history of integrated circuits, the microprocessor, and Silicon Valley. The Valley of Heart's Delight, as it was known before Don Hoefler's 1971 naming, was and is truly an amazing place with remarkable individuals. As a young electrical engineer, I first came out to Palo Alto because there were two minicomputer companies with headquarters within two miles of each other -- Varian Associates and Hewlett-Packard. HP had just gotten into the minicomputer business in 1967 and was eager to sell its new machines. They gave my upstart Ann Arbor-based company $100,000 worth of equipment and 60 days credit terms to pay for it. Our company had a net worth of $3,000 and I was 25 years old. HP had the true Silicon Valley start-up spirit.

The next time I came to the Bay Area was when I read the Electronic News two page advertisement for the 4004 chip on November 15, 1971, "Announcing a new era of integrated electronics -- a micro-programmable computer on a chip." Few believed. None of the 80 or so minicomputer companies, led by Digital Equipment and Data General, took it seriously. Luckily I did and moved here.
Mike Malone perfectly captures this whole era in Part II: Start-Up (1968-1971) and Part III: The Spirit of the Age (1972-1987).

Mike Malone explains the three different personalities of the founders. When you call Andy Grove "paranoid" he certainly was.
Andy believed spies were everywhere. When I went to an analyst meeting and arrived early, I went to the bathroom with my briefcase. A secretary quickly followed me into the bathroom and told me I had to check the briefcase before being allowed into the analyst meeting. I said this was ridiculous and she replied that this was on strict orders from Andy Grove. Another time, when I asked a technical question, Andy Grove prefaced his remark by accusing me of being "a Motorola spy." I made the mistake of saying that the 16-bit Motorola 68000 microprocessor was a superior product. Read Chapter 20, "Crush", in which Mike Malone explains that the great marketing of the microprocessor beat the great engineering of Motorola.

If you weren't in Silicon Valley in the 1970s, 1980s or 1990s, you can capture the spirit by reading this remarkable book.
15 internautes sur 19 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Important business lessons from Intel's history 15 juillet 2014
Par John Gibbs - Publié sur
Format:Format Kindle
Intel’s greatest strength has been its willingness to take huge risks, even betting the company, according to Michael Malone in this book. On the occasions when those bets have failed, the company has clawed its way back into the game through superhuman effort and will,... and then immediately gone on to take yet more risks.

The story starts in September 1957 when the “Traitorous Eight” employees of Shockley Transistor left to form their own company, which became Fairchild Semiconductor. When Fairchild started falling apart a decade later, two of its key scientists and leaders, Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, decided to start a new business, and Andy Grove joined them as their first employee at Intel. The book goes on to describe Intel’s ups and downs over the ensuing 45 years.

Gordon Moore had first observed in 1965 that the complexity of integrated circuits was doubling every year, and in the 1970s the doubling of computer chip performance every two years became known as Moore’s Law. Intel Corporation, as the keeper of Moore’s Law, proceeded over the next several decades to innovate at the required rate, using a combination of science and business cunning to stay ahead of its competitors.

It is a well-crafted story, although perhaps a bit longer than necessary. Intel seems to have “come roaring out” or “come roaring back” after downturns quite a few times, and the traits of some characters get repeated a bit. I have no personal knowledge of the key individuals, but can’t help suspecting that they have been a little bit stereotyped. For example, I suspect that Andy Grove’s attitude towards Bob Noyce was more nuanced than the animosity portrayed by the author.

Notwithstanding these minor issues, I thoroughly enjoyed the book. Intel Corporation has had a profound effect not only on the field of electronics but on the world as a whole. It has been one of the key players in the digital revolution, and there is a great deal to learn from the manner in which the company has been run, and its successes and failures over the years.
13 internautes sur 17 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Industry Giants and the Beginning of Intel - 19 juillet 2014
Par Loyd E. Eskildson - Publié sur
Format:Format Kindle
Silicon Valley 'began' on a September, 1957 day when 8 key employees ('The Traitorous Eight') of Shockley Transistor decided to quit their jobs. The 'last straw' had been Shockley's ongoing lie-detector program. Among the group - Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, of later Intel fame. The group formed Fairchild Semiconductor. Their reason for leaving - Shockley had repeatedly demonstrated himself to be a terrible boss - paranoid, contemptuous of subordinates, and arrogant, as well as having no ability to run a business. The oldest of those leaving was 29. Fairchild Camera and Instrument invested $1.5 million to fund the new group, and retained ownership.

Bob Noyce saw two immediate needs: 1)Quickly getting a product to market, and 2)developing a new low-cost manufacturing method - else they would be swamped by far bigger firms with scale economies. Within three months the new group had a prototype and got IBM to buy 100 @ $150 each for use in its XB-70 avionics contract. Fairchild/Noyce committed to using silicon instead of the then standard geranium (brittle), and was able to deliver ahead of schedule five months later.

En route, one of the group invented photolithography (draw and photograph the design in a large format, reduce that image to a tiny transparency, use U.V - later laser light to expose the substrate and then etch away unexposed areas and dose them with impurities. Noyce himself then linked multiple transistors onto a single silicon slice, forming the first integrated circuit. Fairchild was now atop the industry and in less than a decade had 12,000 employees.

Competitors, however, did not stand still - Motorola was challenging with significant innovations of its own. Noyce then again shocked the industry by announcing at a 1965 conference that it would price its ICs at $1 each - a fraction of current industry pricing, and less than it cost Fairchild to make them. His logic was to price where costs were headed (per learning curve) and capture market share. Share price zoomed from $27 to $144 in the first ten months of 1965 ($50 in October alone).

However, Fairchild's domination didn't last long. It was late to the next innovation (metal-oxide semiconductors - MOS), many staff left because Fairchild had no stock option plan that would allow them to get rich quick (eg. some 100+ companies were spawned), quality began falling, and the N.Y. bureaucracy increasingly became a problem. The last straw came when Fairchild passed over Noyce for the top position.

Noyce and Moore left, and assisted by venture capitalist Art Rock, cofounded Intel, with Rock as the CEO. Their plan was to focus on memory chips and adopt an innovation pace that followed Moore's Law. Andrew Grove had been Moore's #2 in Fairchild's R&D and invited himself along. (He became an employee, without stock options.) (Grove has considerable misgivings about anything involving Noyce - seeing him as indecisive and unable to settle differences.) Noyce and Moore each put in $250,000, Rock added $10,000 and then worked to obtain another $2.5 million from investors, accomplishing the latter in 2 days. ($100,000 of original stock would be worth about $3 billion today.) Their first order obtained a price only 1/3 that expected.

Back at Fairchild, Noyce's replacement (Les Hogan, from Motorola) made the mistake (subsequently admitted) of bringing in a number of former cohorts from Motorola, further demoralizing remaining staff --> more departures, including Jerry Sanders, who then formed AMD and began a new life as a second source.

Noyce, as a 12-year-old, along with his 14-year-old brother and friends, built a 25-lb. glider, ultimately attaching it to a friend's car and towing it down the street with Noyce's 7-year-old brother as pilot. The next year he built a car, powered by a discarded gasoline washing machine motor. Went to local Grinnell College, found an inspiring physics teacher there and obtained a scholarship to an MIT PhD program. There he had a difficult time at first, and found that nobody knew about transistors. Noyce was able to learn that topic by attending technical conferences, and there also met Shockley and Hogan. MIT did have an excellent course on quantum theory.

Gordon Moore first attended San Jose State, then U.C. Berkeley, and finally California Institute of Technology.

Grove was first envisioned as head of technology development, but instead ended up bringing management skill to Intel - action plans were expected at the end of meetings, and there were penalties for wasting time and/or violating budgets.

Their first product was a 64-bit memory chip, brought out 18 months after the firm was founded, in the spring of 1969. Months later, it was followed by a 1,024 bit memory chip.

Friden introduced the first transistor calculator in 1963, and was followed shortly by Toshiba's first calculator - with semiconductor memory, precursor to the PC. This opened a new market and shifted the focus from military uses to commercial. New entrants flocked in and by 1970 there may have been over 100 calculator companies. The established firms worked to add more than the original four basic arithmetic functions (mostly American, eg. H-P), make them smaller (American and Japanese - Casio, TI), or drive competitors out with massive investments in marketing and lowering production costs (Canon). While Intel was struggling with problems concerning its new Honeywell-ordered memory chip, two of its top engineers were also working to develop four general-purpose programmable chips to hold serve as a 'quasi-CPU' per an order from Japan's Busicom. Eventually this was compressed into a single chip, the 740 KHz 4004 microprocessor. Intel was able to produce acceptable chips for both areas, and now had a toe-hold in the CPU market. That chip has 2,300 transistors and a circuit width of 10 micrometers.

Late 1979, however, saw Intel's 8080 losing out to Motorola's 6800 for CPU sales; it was also rumored that Zilog would soon introduce another superior chip - the Z8000. Intel reacted quickly to warnings from the field and Grove assigned marketing the task of coming up with a solution because there wasn't enough time to design a new chip. They quickly came up with 'Operation Crush' that emphasized customer solutions and a system, not product viewpoint. Hence, Intel was portrayed as offering a package solution that included it being a specialists (Motorola was into a much broader range of products),commitment to a long-term platform with minimal upgrade problems, superior supporting chips (eg. math co-processor), and emulators that allowed customers to integrate new Intel chips prior to their arrival. Grove took only a few days to approve their proposal, and each salesperson was given a target of one new sale each month, 2,000 total for the year.

Earl Whetstone decided to go to IBM, despite its internal semiconductor operations being larger than Intel's total sales. Fortunately, IBM was under antitrust scrutiny and was leery of immediately dominating the neophyte PC market. In fact, the small skunk-works charged with creating an IBM PC was largely isolated from IBM resources for that reason. The outcome - 10,000 chips sold/month to IBM; further, IBM also allowed others to license its approach --> IBM-standard quickly beat out Apple and its 90% of the market (had a six-year lead), and entered the corporate market as well. (Microsoft was asked to bring in its Word, and IBM also inquired about an operating system. Gates suggested DR-DOS (California firm), but when negotiations broke down Gates/Allen bought a Seattle company and submitted their product --> MS-DOS.)

Intel more than met its 2,000 sales target - hitting 2,500. However, Intel under Grove later failed to respond to early reports of Pentium flaws, one the average spreadsheet user estimated would encounter every 27,000 years. The stonewalling damaged Intel's reputation for technical superiority, and a month later Grove announced Intel would replace any CPUs customers wanted replaced.

'First-entry failure' examples - Netscape, Myspace, Altair.

The soaring memory demand for new digital industries in the early 1980s (minicomputers, video games, scientific and programmable calculators, PCs) brought double and triple ordering and subsequent overcapacity. Another problem - Japanese producers were achieving yields of 70 - 80% by the mid-1980s, while the best U.S. firms were in the 50 - 60% range, and the reliability of Japanese memory chips was also higher. U.S. memory producers saw market share fall from 75% in 1980 to just over 25% in 1986.

One of the best-known U.S. responses is Motorola's Six Sigma quality program; other contributions came from overcoming our heretofore aversion to 'not invented here,' benchmarking, weakening the dollar, and lobbying. While Intel saw the manufacture of memory chips as beneficial in testing new process/equipment improvements, and for rounding out its product line, it was losing money - and exited the business in 1986, along with 8 of the remaining ten other U.S. producers.

Intel then ended its CPU second-sourcing agreements with other firms, copyrighted the software embedded in its chip designs, sped up its product development cycle, and in 1991 launched its 'Intel Inside' branding campaign. In 1999 Intel had 82% of the microprocessor market.

Complex chips can require 30 or more mask layers and take weeks to process from start to finish. Wafer size has moved from 4" to 14+". Scale has moved from 20-30K wafers/month to 50K+. Chip design was initially done entirely by hand, and is now much more automated.

'The Intel Trinity' is a fascinating and important history of the U.S. chip industry and Intel. Intel's current top CPU (15-Core Xeon Ivy Bridge-EX) can hit 4.8GHZ, contains over 4.3 billion transistors, and has a circuit width of 22 nm. However, Malone fails to explain how even Intel largely failed to act upon the emerging tablet, mobile, and auto markets, and in 2013 had less than 1% of the mobile market - now dominated by Apple and Samsung. Samsung is now #2 in worldwide semiconductor market share, partly through its doubling flash memory density each year beginning in the early 2000s, is moving closer to #1 Intel each year.
3 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 How it all began. 22 juillet 2014
Par Sinohey - Publié sur
The book gives an indepth account of the history of the early days of the genesis of technology from transistor to semiconductor to memory chip, and the biography of the innovators that had the greatest impact; none more so than Noyce, Moore and Grove. Silicon Valley owes its name and fame to these maverick visionaries.

Robert Noyce (1927 - 1990), was precociously brilliant, with a penchant for mathematics and physics. He was a star athlete and musician at Grinnell College and graduated from MIT with a PhD in physics in 1953. Three years later he joined (Nobel Prize winner) William Shockley at his lab, only to leave a year later with the “traitorous eight” including Gordon Moore. Noyce is recognized as the co-inventor of the microchip (with Jack Kilby), he received 15 patents and many awards.

Gordon Earle Moore (1929) was born in San Francisco and received his entire education in California, culminating to a PhD in Chemistry with a Physics minor from Caltech in 1954. This was followed by a 2-year postdoctoral research in Applied Physics at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, after which he joined Shockley’s Lab. Moore received numerous awards for his many seminal contributions in the field of semiconductors and science, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Andrew Grove was born Andras Grof in Budapest, Hungary in 1936. As a Jew, he suffered under the Nazi occupation and the repressive Communist totalitarian regime that followed. But in 1956, during the Hungarian revolution, he escaped to the USA where he eventually received a PhD from University of California in 1963, after which he worked at Fairchild Semiconductor. Grove received many accolades and awards for his technical accomplishments and management skills; he was Time Magazine’s Man of the Year 1997.

In 1957, Noyce and Moore, left their jobs at Shockley Transistor because of an outgoing and deteriorating hostile work environment and, with an investment of $1.5 million from Fairchild Camera & Instrument, they formed their company (as a Fairchild subsidiary) and started producing transistors for IBM. Noyce used silicon in his product instead of the standard, but more brittle/friable geranium. Many innovations and products followed using silicon; an industry was born, several Fairchild employees quit and many became competitors. The free-for-all negatively impacted the overall quality of products.

In 1968, Noyce and Moore left Fairchild Semiconductor and founded Intel with the help of venture capitalist Arthur Rock with Noyce as CEO. They took Grove with them to become Director of engineering but Grove had misgivings about Noyce’s management style as “too easy going, laid back”; initially hired as head of technological development, Grove’s managerial skills and aptitude made him the obvious choice to direct the firm.
Grove created a work environment that fostered creativity with utmost discipline. He allowed employees to be innovative and progressive indesign. But demanded that they measure their performance every step of the way. Grove pushed his managers to prepare for change and his guiding motto “Only the paranoid survive” became the title of his management book.
The Intel Trinity of Noyce, Moore and Grove lived in discord. Grove, the relentless hard driver, resented the recognition given to Noyce as “The Mayor of Silicon Valley” while he was relegated to background. Moore was the humble brilliant visionary (Moore’s Law) in contrast to the self-promotion of Noyce and his lack of engagement in the minutiae of the business.

At the onset, Intel began producing dynamic memory chips DRAMs but were overtaken by the Japanese producers. Grove made a bold move to discontinue DRAMs and concentrate on microprocessors, landing an exclusive contract with IBM, manipulating the Japanese computer producers and the rest is history = No spoilers here=.

The book is an interesting insight into an important period of a major scientific development of the modern age and the men who made it possible. The author seems to gloss over Intel’s rapacity to dominate the semiconductor industry, crushing the competition thru price fixing, bribery and intimidation - which hampered innovation and technical breakthroughs for decades. Grove could abide no competition, Intel’s monopoly had to absolute; the company’s modus operandi to this day.

The writing is crisp and flows evenly with some exceptions where repetition and the author’s opinion are injected in the narrative, which , in my opinion, unnecessarily added to the length of the book.
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