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An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (with linked TOC) (English Edition)
 
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An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (with linked TOC) (English Edition) [Format Kindle]

Jeremy Bentham
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This ebook is complete with linked Table of Content making navigation quicker and easier.

Jeremy Bentham was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism and animal rights, and the idea of the panopticon.

His position included arguments in favour of individual and economic freedom, usury, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalizing of homosexual acts. He also argued for the abolition of slavery, physical punishment (including that of children) and the death penalty. Although strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts."

He became the most influential of the utilitarians, through his own work and that of his students. These included his secretary and collaborator on the utilitarian school of philosophy, James Mill; James Mill's son John Stuart Mill; John Austin, legal philosopher; and several political leaders, including Robert Owen, a founder of modern socialism. He is also considered the godfather of University College London.

Bentham's ambition in life was to create a "Pannomion", a complete utilitarian code of law. Bentham not only proposed many legal and social reforms, but also expounded an underlying moral principle on which they should be based. This utilitarianism philosophy argued that the right act or policy was that which would cause "the greatest good for the greatest number of people", also known as "the greatest happiness principle", or the principle of utility. He wrote in The Principles of Morals and Legislation:
“ Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think.. ”

He also suggested a procedure for estimating the moral status of any action, which he called the Hedonistic or felicific calculus. Utilitarianism was revised and expanded by Bentham's student, John Stuart Mill. In Mill's hands, "Benthamism" became a major element in the liberal conception of state policy objectives. ---From Wikipedia

Publisher comments

The new critical edition of the works and correspondence of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) is being prepared and published under the supervision of the Bentham Committee of University College London. Despite his importance as jurist, philosopher, social scientist, and leader of the Utilitarian reformers, the only previous edition of his works was a poorly edited and incomplete one brought out within a decade or so of his death. Eight volumes of the new Collected Works (five of correspondence and three of writings on jurisprudence) were published between 1968 and 1981 by the Athlone Press. A further six volumes of correspondence and eleven other works have been published by Oxford University Press since 1983. Work is currently being undertaken on further volumes of correspondence, and writings on political reform at the time of the French Revolution, on the Poor Laws, on Language and Logic, and on Evidence and Judicial Procedure. The overall plan and principles of the edition are set out in the General Preface to The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, volume 1. It is now estimated that the edition will run to some sixty or so volumes.

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1 internautes sur 1 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Aux sources de la raison utilitaire 8 mars 2009
Par Jean-paul Lacharme TOP 500 COMMENTATEURS VOIX VINE
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
Si les ouvrages inspirés par l'utilitarisme demeurent assez nombreux, ceux de son premier théoricien, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), ne sont plus édités en français. C'est donc une fois de plus chez l'éditeur New-Yorkais Dover qu'il faut se tourner si l'on veut remonter à la source. En fait, comme l'explique très bien Alain Caillé dans sa Critique de la raison utilitaire (Manifeste du MAUSS), la pensée utilitariste n'a pas attendu Bentham pour s'édifier, mais c'est bien chez cet auteur et notamment dans la présente introduction aux principes de la morale et à la législation (publiée en 1789) qu'on en trouve un exposé concis (les 22 premières pages des chapitres I et II de l'ouvrage). Le reste du livre (qui compte 378 pages) est une description taxinomique systématique des plaisirs et des souffrances, des actions humaines, des délits, des peines et des punitions définie finement avec un souci constant (un peu vain) de quantification, de mesurabilité.
Ce livre, qui possède d'abord un intérêt historique, intéressera plus particulièrement l'historien du droit pénal. La pensée de l'auteur, taillée à la serpe, a été peaufinée par son filleul John Stuart Mill. A choisir, mieux vaut sans doute lire Mill que Bentham. Sur la forme, l'anglais de Bentham (début XIXe) n'est pas toujours commode à lire et il faut souvent s'y reprendre à deux fois pour saisir le sens exact des phrases. Sur le plan du droit, Bentham est un digne successeur de Beccaria (1738-1794). S'il se positionne clairement contre la peine capitale (p.
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Amazon.com: 4.2 étoiles sur 5  10 commentaires
7 internautes sur 8 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Bentham presented the original subjective expected utility approach to decision making 18 juillet 2008
Par Michael Emmett Brady - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
Jeremy Bentham's Bentham Utilitarianism is essentially based on his desire to move away from the moral philosophy of Judeo-Christian ethics ,or the deism of Adam Smith, and move toward a philosophy that could under pin an atheistic perspective.Bentham wants to come up with a decision making calculus which is simultaneously applicable to issues in economics(politics)and ethics(morals).Bentham claims that for all actions there are two distinctly measurable outcomes,pain and pleasure. Bentham comes up with a Principle of Utility(p.1).This essentially boils down to the observation that positive utility(pleasure) is generated by activities that generate sensations of pleasure while negative utility(pain) is generated by activities which generate sensations of pain.One can approve or disapprove of any action to the extent that it increases happiness(pleasure)or decreases pain.Approve ,in Bentham's system,translates as good or right.Disapprove,in Benthams system, translates as bad or wrong.How is this system implemented ? Bentham claims that there are lots(units) of pleasure and pain that all decisionmakers can calculate precisely and exactly.The value of the lots will be more or less depending on the duration,intensity,and certainty of the pleasure.All actions are equally good if the sum of the amounts of pleasure resulting from each action is equal.This is where economists come up with their indifference curve analysis and hedonic calculus.Unfortunately,Bentham fails miseribly in his attempt to demonstrate that human decision makers have the capacity to calculate exactly in quantitative terms.He never answers the question ," How do humans actually make the quantitative calculations ? ", upon which Bentham's entire edifice of decision amking is so precariously balanced .He merely asserts it:" ...who is their who does not calculate ? Men calculate,some with less exactness,indeed,and some with more:but all men calculate.I would not say,that even a madman does not calculate ".(p.188) .This is very similar to the modern neoclassical economist who simply asserts that the normal distribution is applicable even if goodness of fit tests demonstrate that the data from the time series observations does not come close to fitting the normal probability distribution.

Bentham is the founder of both Classical and Neoclassical economics.Smith explicitly rejected Bentham's arguments in The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759;sixth edition,1790)some 28 years before Bentham decided to eliminate conscience(Smith's impartial spectator) and substitute utility.It is easy to see that the modern Benthamite approach is to combine the Bayesian ,subjectivist approach to probability of F Ramsey,B De Finetti,and L Savage with the game theoretic,expected utility approach to utility of von Neumann and Morgenstern to obtain the Subjective Expected Utility (SEU)approach, which is the fundamental foundation of all neoclassical economics and economists.Any economist ,who claims that he is not a neoclassical economist ,but who fervently supports SEU,is a neoclassical economist.Only risk,usually represented by the standard deviation of a normal probability distribution
,exists in SEU.Keynes demonstrated that SEU is a very special theory that only is sound when the weight of the evidence,w, supporting the estimate of the probabilty relation, is complete.w must have a value of 1.Only in this case can a decision maker define a single probability distribution to represent his preferences.Only in this case can the standard deviation represent the risk involved . A value of w < 1 means that decisions are being made in conditions of partial ignorance.A value of w=0 means decisions are being made in total ignorance.One can just as easily work with D Ellsberg's rho index.A rho = 1 allow a decision maker to specify a single unique distribution.A rho value less than one requires a set of different possible distributions.A rho =0 means that no distribution can be used.Note that this only deals with the nature of the probabilities.The outcomes themselves may also have to be represented as intervals.This is the case with the very strange Kahneman-Tversky battlefield and rare Asian disease problems which were put forth by them as cases of decision making with either w or rho < 1.Yet Kahneman and Tversky claimed that the decision maker had exact,precise point probabilities and exact,precise outcomes attached to the point probabilities.This made no sense either in theory or to the experimental subjects subjected to this kind of bizarre decision problem.

It is extremely important to read Bentham's book in order to understand modern day approaches to decision making.The modern approach merely rewrites Bentham's book using more up to date mathematical techniques and formal exposition.The ideas are the same.
12 internautes sur 15 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 It's all downhill from here. 13 septembre 1999
Par Un client - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
Jeremy Bentham was an important social reformer and a major figure in the history of ethics. However you might not know it from reading this dense and forbidding tract. Even a short excerpt can be tough going. However, utilitarianism has been, and remains, one of the most influential ethical philosophies of all time, and this was among its modern founding documents.
If one can come away from it with a general sense of what utilitarianism is, what act utilitarianism is, and how it gets from egoism in psychology to neutralism in ethics, one has done pretty well. This should help the reader start thinking about what some of the problems with this theory are, how it measures up to its competitors, and how it can be applied to specific problems.
The best news for those who have braved this text is that Mill and other later thinkers will seem like poetry in motion by comparison.
6 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 An intellectual feast 20 décembre 2005
Par Book Lover - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ['ben??m]) (February 15, 1748 - June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He is best known as an early advocate of utilitarianism and animal rights.

Bentham was one of the most influential (classical) liberals, partially through his writings but particularly through his students all around the world, including John Stuart Mill and several political leaders.

He argued in favor of individual and economic freedom, including the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, animal rights, the end of slavery, the abolition of physical punishment (also of children), the right to divorce, free trade, and no restrictions on interest. But, he was not a libertarian, and supported inheritance tax, restrictions on monopoly power, pensions, and health insurance.

In 1776, Bentham published his Fragment on Government anonymously, a criticism of Blackstone's Commentaries, and in 1780 his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation was published.

A truly influential author!
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Andrés Mauricio Briceño Chaves 9 novembre 2013
Par Andres Briceno - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
So a great book for Jeremy Bentham, and work about the utilitarism system. Always Bentham works it is fantastic and formative.
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Bentham is much more sophisticated in his thinking than many realize 22 avril 2013
Par Chuck - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Format Kindle|Achat vérifié
Bentham is much more sophisticated in his thinking than many realize.He is the most important political phllosopher of all time.
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