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Nietzsche: Volumes Three and Four (Anglais) Broché – 1 mars 1991


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A landmark discussion between two great thinkers--the second (combining volumes III and IV) of two volumes inquiring into the central issues of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy.

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Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) was born in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. He studied at the University of Freiburg and became a professor at the University of Marburg in 1932. After publishing his his magnum opus, Being and Time (1927), he returned to Freiburg to assume the chair of philosophy upon Husserl's retirement.




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Who Nietzsche is and above all who he will be we shall know as soon as we are able to think the thought that he gave shape to in the phrase "the will to power." Lire la première page
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Couverture | Copyright | Table des matières | Extrait | Quatrième de couverture
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19 internautes sur 21 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
The Heideggerian view of Nietzsche in its entirety 10 novembre 2002
Par Dr. Lee D. Carlson - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché
Due to the political affiliation of Martin Heidegger and his place in history, it is perhaps difficult to analyze his works objectively. The temptation might be then to lift him from history, with the imagined goal of perhaps cleansing him from the troubling influences he chose to be in. But however Heidegger is read, whether in historical context, or from a "modern standpoint", he does have some interesting and original things to say about Friedrich Nietzsche. His politics was destructive, as history has shown, and that is a fact that can be discussed completely outside the context of this book.

This is a lengthy book, and concentrates on Nietzsche's work "The Will to Power". Space therefore prohibits a detailed review, but some of the more interesting discussions by the author include:

1. The classifying of Nietzsche as being the "last metaphysician" of the West. The author believes that his thought was a consummation of Western philosophy, and that the will to power is an appreciation of the decision that must be made as to whether the this final age is the conclusion of Western history or a prelude to another beginning. Nietzsche wanted philosophy to not shy away from the predicament it found itself in. Therefore the author encourages philosophers to not merely "toy" with philosophical thoughts, as this will place them merely at the boundary of the set of important philosophical issues. The will to power is a sign of courage that consists of shedding one's reservations, and in recognizing the stakes in the issues at hand.

2. The reading of Nietzsche as someone who believed that the essence of life is in "self-transcending enhancement", and not in Darwinian struggle. Value is to be equated with the enhancement of life.

3. The author's overview and explanation, and deduction of what "truth" meant for Nietzsche. Truth can become a "de-realization" and a hindrance to life, and therefore not be condition of life, and thus not a value. But for the author, Nietzsche wants to overcome nihilism, and this implies therefore that there must be a value greater than truth. And what is this value? It is art, says Nietzsche, which is "worth more than truth".

4. The author's discussion of the alleged biologism of Nietzsche. A reading of Nietzsche might tempt one to conclude that he was, but the author cautions that such a characterization of his writings would be unfounded. One must not base an understanding on mere impressions, and "unlearn" the abuse that has been leveled against the "catchword" called "biologism". The author therefore suggests that we must learn to "read".

5. The description of Nietzsche's epistemology as "schematizing a chaos". For Nietzsche, this schematizing is an act of imposing upon chaos as much regularity and as many forms as our practical needs require. This is an interesting move, for is the characterization of something as chaotic itself subject to the imposition of this regularity? But the author is certainly aware of this problem, for he discusses in detail the Nietzschean concept of chaos. His reading of Nietzsche in this regard is that chaos does not mean confusion or the removal of all order. It rather means that order is concealed, and is not understood immediately. Most eloquently, the author describes the Nietzschean epistemology as a "stream that in its flow first creates the banks and turns them toward each other in a more original way than a bridge ever would." Such a concept of knowledge may seem poetic and too ephemeral to support what is needed for activities such as science and technology, and this is correct.

6. The discussion of Nietzsche's stand on the law of contradiction. Heidegger reads Nietzsche as holding to (without an explicit admission on Nietzsche's part) an Aristotelian notion of this law, saying in effect that taking the position that the law of contradiction is the highest of all principles demands an answer to the question of what sorts of assertions it already fundamentally presupposes. Again following Aristotle, Heidegger uses 'Being" in his most powerful sense here, as it is 'Being' that has its presence and in permanence. This means that beings represented as such will take into account these two requirements via being "at the same time" and "in the same respect". But this permanence is disregarded when an individual makes a contradiction. It is a loss of memory about what is to be grasped in a "yes" and "no". Such an activity will not be harmless, says Heidegger, as one day its catastrophic consequences will be manifested. Heidegger sums up the law of noncontraction as that the "essence of beings consists in the constant absence of contradiction". Further, Heidegger says, Nietzsche's interpretation of the law of contraction is one of an "imperative". This means that its use is a declaration of "what is to count" and follows Nietzsche's conception of truth as a "holding-to-be-true". Nietzsche therefore says that "not being able to contradict is proof of an incapacity, not of a 'truth.'"
5 internautes sur 5 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
Invaluable 22 février 2009
Par Steiner - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché
This text is a continuation of Heidegger's lecture series on Nietzsche. It includes Volume III: The Will to Power as Knowledge and as Metaphysics, and Volume IV: Nihilism. There is also further commentary on the much misunderstood doctrines of 'eternal return,' and the 'overman.' Heidegger argues against the fascistic Nietzsche interpretations by Baeumler and the like. Heidegger's Nietzsche is a metaphysical thinker, he shakes him off all attempts to situate him as a thinker of biologism or crude nihilism. Rather, Nietzsche is a thinker of affirmation and enhancement. Although many are hesitant to fully accept Heidegger's preoccupation with Being in this work, there are few who reject the significance of this insightful exegesis. David Krell's analysis is also helpful and thoroughly researched.
THE SECOND PART OF HEIDEGGER'S 1936-1940 LECTURES ON NIETZSCHE 8 octobre 2014
Par Steven H Propp - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) was an influential and controversial German philosopher, primarily concerned with Being, and phenomenology---who was widely (perhaps incorrectly) also perceived as an Existentialist. His relationship with the Nazi party in Germany has been the subject of widespread controversy and debate [e.g., Heidegger and Nazism, Heidegger and the Nazis, Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany, Heidegger and the Question of National Socialism, etc.] He wrote many other books, such as Being and Time, Introduction to Metaphysics, Basic Writings, The Question Concerning Technology, etc. The companion volume to this book is Nietzsche, Vol. 1: The Will to Power as Art, Vol. 2: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. This four-volume series principally consists of lectures by Heidegger during the reign of Nazi Germany as well as the beginnings of World War II.

He states in the first chapter of Volume 3, "Nietzsche belongs among the essential thinkers. With the term `thinker' we name those exceptional human beings who are always destined to think one single thought, a thought that is always `about' BEINGS AS A WHOLE. Each thinker thinks only one SINGLE thought. It needs neither renown nor impact in order to gain dominance. In contrast, writers and researchers, as opposed to a thinker, `have' lots and lots of thoughts, that is, ideas that can be converted into much-prized `reality' and that are also evaluated solely in accord with this conversion-capability. But the single thought of a thinker is one around which, unexpectedly, unnoticed in the stillest stillness, all beings turn." (V3, pg. 4) He adds, "Nietzsche, the thinker of the thought of will to power, is the LAST METAPHYSICIAN of the West. The age whose consummation unfolds in his thought, the modern age, is a final age." (Pg. 8) But later he admits, "Yet Nietzsche himself in his published works scarcely spoke of will to power. This may be taken as a sign that he wanted to protect as long as possible what was most intrinsic to his recognition of the truth concerning beings, and to take it into the custody of a uniquely simple saying. Will to power is mentioned, but not yet singled out as a key expression, in the second part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra..." (V3, pg. 194)

He suggests, "Precisely here the age of consummate meaninglessness begins. In such a designation meaninglessness is to be taken as a concept of thought that thinks the history of Being. Such thinking leave metaphysics as a whole ... behind... Meaninglessness is lack of the truth (clearing) of Being. Every possibility of such a projection founders because metaphysics has shunted aside the essence of truth. When the very question concerning the essence of the truth of BEINGS and of our comportment toward beings is decide, meditation on the truth of Being, as the more original question concerning the essence of truth, can only remain in default." (V3, pg. 174)

He says, "Therefore, if with regard to subjectivity so understood we wish to speak of the subjectivism of modern thought, we must completely reject any notion that it is a question here of something `merely subjective,' of egoistic and solipsistic opinion and affectation. For the essence of subjectivism is objectivism, insofar as everything becomes an object for the subject. The nonobjective... too is determined by the objective, by a relation of opposition to it. Because representation puts into representedness what encounters us and shows itself, the being that is mustered in this way comes to be an `object.' All objectivity is `subjective.' This does not mean that being comes to be a mere point of view and opinion set down by some casual and arbitrary `I.' That all objectivity is `subjective' means that what encounters us comes to be established as an object standing in itself. `Beingness is subjectivity' and "Beingness in objectivity' say the self-same thing." (V3, pg. 221)

He argues, "Viewed negatively, the liberation to a new freedom is an escape from the Christian Church's assurance of redemption based on belief in revelation. Within the scope of this assurance, the truth of salvation does not restrict itself to a relation of faith, a relation to God; rather, the truth of salvation at the same time decides about beings. What is then called philosophy is the handmaid of theology. Beings in their sundry orders are the creation of a creator God, a creation rescued from the Fall and elevated to the supersensuous realm once again through the redeemed God. However, because it exposes man to the free space of insecurity, whereby he takes the risk of choosing his own essence, the liberation from truth as assurance of salvation must inevitably go in the direction of a freedom that now really for the first time achieves a surety for man and defines his security anew." (V3, pg. 239-240)

Later, he adds, "the frequently quoted expression [`The soul is naturally Christian']... is not a purely indubitable `natural' truth, but is a CHRISTIAN truth, so too natural theology has the ground of its truth only in the biblical teaching that man was fashioned by a creator God who also endowed him with knowledge of his Creator. Because natural theology as a philosophical discipline cannot validly permit the Old Testament to be the source of its truths, the contents of that theology must be diluted to the statement of that the world must have a first cause. That does not prove that the first cause is a `God,' assuming that a God would ever let Himself be debased into an object of proofs. It is important to have some insight into the essence of rational theology, because Western metaphysics is theological even where it opposes church theology." (V4, pg. 26)

He asserts, `a `Christian philosophy' is even more contradictory than a square circle. Square and circle are at least compatible in that they are both geometrical figures, while Christian faith and philosophy remain fundamentally different. Even if one wished to say that truth is taught in both, what is meant to truth is utterly divergent... What is new about the modern period as opposed to the Christian medieval age consists in the fact that man... contrives to become certain and sure of his human being in the midst of beings as a whole. The essential Christian thought of the certitude of salvation is adopted, but such `salvation' is not eternal, other-worldly bliss, and the way to it is not selflessness. The hale and the wholesome are sought exclusively in the free "self-development of all the creative powers of man. Thus the question arises as to HOW we can attain and ground the certitude sought by man himself for his earthly life, concerning his own human being in the world ... now the quest for new paths becomes decisive." (V4, pg. 88-89)

He admits, "In Being and Time, on the basis of the question of the truth of Being, no longer the question of the truth of beings, an attempt is made to determine the essence of man solely in terms of his relationship to Being. That essence was described in a firmly delineated sense as De-sein. In spite of a simultaneous development of a more original concept of truth ... the part thirteen years have not in the least succeeded in awakening even a preliminary understanding of the question that was posed... the reason for such noncomprehension lies in the attempt itself, which ... evolves from what has been heretofore." (V4, pg. 141)

He contends, "We have said... that Nietzsche's metaphysics if nihilism proper. This implies not only that Nietzsche's nihilism does not overcome nihilism but also that it can never overcome it. For it is precisely in the positing of new values from the will to power, by which and through which Nietzsche believes he will overcome nihilism, that nihilism proper first proclaims that there is nothing to Being itself, which has now become a value. As a result, Nietzsche experiences the historical movement of nihilism as a history of the devaluation of the highest values hitherto." (V4, pg. 203)

Heidegger claimed that these lectures constituted "a confrontation with National Socialism." (If they were, I must have missed that part.) But they are one of Heidegger's most interesting works, and will be of great interest to anyone studying his philosophy.
Some may not like the journey or the destination 28 décembre 2014
Par Rick Butler - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
Heidegger's confrontation with Nietzsche is, as Derrida noted, 'more complicated than it seems'. Heidegger's explication of how Nietzsche has thought through the 'modern' can only be described as breathtaking. This is essential reading for knowing who we are and where we are heading. Some may not like the journey or the destination, but that is where the beginning begins...
3 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
A deep meditation 4 novembre 2007
Par Eduardo E. Eskenazi Boverman - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
One of the greatest works on Nietzsche and about the end of Metaphysics. Heidegger re-discovers Nietzsche as a thinker, and not merely as a "critic of culture".
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