Psychological Commentaries on the Teaching of Gurdjieff and Ouspensky (Anglais) Broché – janvier 1991
Les clients ayant acheté cet article ont également acheté
Descriptions du produit
Aucun appareil Kindle n'est requis. Téléchargez l'une des applis Kindle gratuites et commencez à lire les livres Kindle sur votre smartphone, tablette ou ordinateur.
Pour obtenir l'appli gratuite, saisissez votre adresse e-mail ou numéro de téléphone mobile.
Détails sur le produit
En savoir plus sur l'auteur
Commentaires en ligne
Commentaires client les plus utiles sur Amazon.com (beta)
1. They describe in great detail both the correct interpretation and the common mistakes made in interpreting the teachings.
2. They describe in great detail how the teachings are actually applied in daily life.
3. They describe in great detail how to overcome the obstacles the false personality creates.
4. They give a complete presentation of the teachings.
5. Maurice Nicoll studied the teachings with both Gurdjieff and Ouspensky.
Here are some helpful quotes from Volume One:
In order to bring about in man this further development he must begin to sacrifice his personality and to go in a sense in the opposite direction to that in which he has gone up to now.
Now a man cannot begin to change until he is able as the result of self-observation to say: This is not I. As soon as he can begin to say this internally to something he observes in himself, he begins to separate it from himself. That is, he begins to take the feeling of I out of it and the result is, eventually, and often only after a struggle, that what he has observed begins to move away from him and so pass into the distance in his inner world. But this is impossible if he thinks that what he has observed is himself, for then it will still be I in him, and I cannot change I, for then no separation will be possible and he will remain united with what he has observed, by taking it as I - that is, as himself - instead of taking it as an I in him.
When a man is thinking he believes that it is himself thinking. But our thoughts come at random, unless we are thinking deeply and with attention, which is very rare. The thoughts that pass across our minds come from different I's in us. Let us suppose a man notices that he is having negative thoughts about the Work or about a person or something that has happened. Let us suppose that he takes these thoughts as his own - as himself - that is, as I - and let us also suppose that he feels some discomfort about them. He says to himself: I must really not think in this way. This may have some result or it may not. But the point is that he is making a mistake - namely, the mistake of taking all that happens within him as himself, as I.
If he observes himself rightly, he notices these thoughts not as himself but as coming from a negative I in him, which perhaps he knows something about already. Let us suppose he knows this I in him fairly well. He recognizes at once that this I is talking in him and communicating its thoughts to him through the mental center and stirring up at the same time a particular kind of negative emotion. He does not for a moment take this negative I as himself but sees it as something in him apart from himself. As a result what it says does not get power over him because he is separate from it.
But if he goes to sleep in himself - that is, if he ceases to be conscious of what is going on in him and which I's are close to him - he falls under its power and, becoming identified with it, imagines that it is he himself who is thinking in that way. By doing this, he strengthens the power of this negative I over him - because, as you know, whatever we identify with at once has power over us, and the more often we identify with something, the more we are slaves to it.
In regard to the Work itself, our temptations lie exactly in negative I's - that is, in I's that hate the Work because their lives in us are threatened by it. If we go with these thoughts - that is, with these negative I's that are at the moment working in us - we are unable to shake off their effect. Their first effect is to make us feel a loss of force. Whenever we feel a sudden loss of force, it is practically always due to the action of a negative I which has started a train of thought from our memories and, by carefully selecting its material, represented something in a wrong light - and it must be remembered that all negative I's can only lie, just as all negative emotions can only distort everything, as, for instance, the emotion of suspicion. Unless we can observe the action of the negative I in the mental center, it will gain power over us. It will gain power instantly if we take it as I - as ourselves. But if we see it as an I at work in us, it cannot do so.
Our negative emotions and thoughts appear cleverer than anything else - at first. Perhaps some of you know how very plausible some I's can be, how they begin to advance arguments in your mind, and apparently wish to assist you. Such I's are self-justifying I's of which we have a great number. These I's appear often like one's reasoning power, and, like bad lawyers, they always start from something that is not quite true.
Now supposing you meet a person who tells lies, at first you do not realize how he speaks, but after a time you become more wary and you realize he is a liar and you cannot trust what he says; but when we are asleep - that is, when we are taking ourselves for granted - I's of this kind, that are inveterate liars, continually take charge of us and of our thoughts, and twist them into all sorts of false patterns, false associations. This makes, as it were, a kind of mess in us and if it goes on long enough the whole of the mind becomes poisoned and cannot think clearly about anything.
It is very necessary to see and to observe lying I's. We have so many of them. They are continually distorting everything. But once you begin to see them you can notice how they are weaving their material and you need not go with them, need not believe them, need not take their inner talking as truth, and this reality is magic. You shake yourself, as it were, like a dog coming out of the water, and get rid of the whole thing instantly. You feel at peace. You feel that something has happened inside you that is quite wonderful, that you have escaped from some danger that you never realized before.
Many of you think that Self-Observation consists merely in noticing that you feel moody, that you feel unwell, that you feel negative or bored or gloomy or depressed and so on. Let me assure you that this is not Self-Observation. Self-Observation begins with the establishing of Observing I in your own inner world. Observing I is not identified with what it observes.
When you say: I am feeling negative, you are not observing yourself. You are your state. You are identified with your state. There is nothing distinct in you that is standing outside your state, something that does not feel your state, something that is independent of it, and is looking at it, something that has a quite different feeling from your state. If you say: I wish I were not negative, this is quite useless. It is I speaking the whole time. You are taking yourself as one mass. You are not dividing yourself into two, which is the beginning of Work on yourself. You are not saying: Why is it negative? but: Why am I negative? You are taking it and you as the same.
Try to understand what it means to divide yourself into two - an observed side and an observing side - and try to feel the sense of I in the observing side and not in the observed side. This is the whole point. Remember that unless a man divides himself into two he cannot move from where he is. It is like this: we are all fastened inside to wrong things which we take as ourselves - wrong thoughts, worries, etc. We take them as us. Work is to separate ourselves from them. This is the beginning of inner freedom. This is what the Work is about. If you can observe your thoughts and worries, then you establish the starting-point of the Work in yourself. It is this observing side that is the new point of growth in you. So try to feel the sense of I in Observing I and not in the observed side. Try to be conscious in Observing I.