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The Cathedral & the Bazaar (en anglais) [Anglais] [Broché]

Eric S. Raymond
4.5 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (2 commentaires client)
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Descriptions du produit

The Cathedral and the Bazaar This volume contains the essays, originally published online, that led to Netscape's decision to release their browser as open source, and helped Linux to rock the world of commercial software. Full description

Détails sur le produit

  • Broché: 208 pages
  • Editeur : O'Reilly; Édition : 2nd Revised edition (1 mars 2001)
  • Collection : HORS COLL US
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ISBN-10: 0596001088
  • ISBN-13: 978-0596001087
  • Dimensions du produit: 21,6 x 14 x 1,4 cm
  • Moyenne des commentaires client : 4.5 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (2 commentaires client)
  • Classement des meilleures ventes d'Amazon: 82.178 en Livres anglais et étrangers (Voir les 100 premiers en Livres anglais et étrangers)
  • Table des matières complète
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Couverture | Copyright | Table des matières | Extrait | Index | Quatrième de couverture
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1 internautes sur 1 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Excellent bouquin décrivant le mouvement libre 17 mai 2005
Par "kiwidav"
Pour mieux comprendre la philosophie du libre et plus concrètement ce qu'il se passe sur le terrain, ce bouquin est une vraie référence. Au delà de l'aspect "gratuit", c'est bien un modèle de travail nouveau qui est proposé (collaboratif). Vous y trouverez un historique du mouvement du libre, les avantages et inconvénients, les conditions de succès d'un projet open-source, les différents modèles économiques du libre (l'interet pour les PME, entreprises) et d'autres points tout autant intéressants. Certaines parties sont techniques. N'hésitez pas à les zapper. Un livre à recommander pour ceux qui veulent mieux comprendre le monde du libre.
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5.0 étoiles sur 5 Un livre clef 18 août 2013
Par TlsCook
Format:Broché|Achat authentifié par Amazon
Toute personne un tant soit peu impliqué en informatique devrais lire ce livre. Qui éclaire sur les approche de développement classiques ainsi que des approche alternatives mises en oeuvre dans le monde open source.
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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur (beta) 4.3 étoiles sur 5  67 commentaires
61 internautes sur 65 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 "Given Enough Eyeballs, All Bugs Are Shallow" 15 septembre 2000
Par Donald Mitchell - Publié sur
This statement above is the fundamental premise for open source software development. Basically, open communications work better than closed, limited ones. So why is this book worth reading? Essentially, because it explains why people are willing to volunteer their time and talents to improve open source code. That characteristic of the open source movement will be the main puzzlement to nondevelopers. But beyond that, this book also provides the basis of an important paradigm for accelerating and improving knolwedge development generally that will be its more lasting and important contribution.
Mr. Raymond is a very good thinker from an economic, sociologial, and anthropological level, and applies these perspectives well in the essays in this book.
Because he assumes you may not know about the development of the open source movement, his essay, A Brief History of Hackerdom, fills in the gaps. By the way, he defines a hacker as a capable software developer who loves his or her work rather than someone who breaks into other peoples' computer systems.
The centerpiece of the book is the essay with the book's title. This essay describes his own experiences in developing an open source e-mail utility, draws lessons from that experience, and compares it to the development of Linux (the primary open source operating system). I knew the Linux story well (if you don't, you should, and this essay will be valuable to you), so I was primarily drawn to the discussion of the author's own experiences. Clearly, the appeal of open software is a chance to work in depth on something that has compelling interest to the free source developer, receive help in getting a better result, get to use the improved software oneself, and recognition for the effort from highly talented people you respect. In other words, assuming your day job still pays the bills, your open source software work will provide for most of your psychic needs. That's pretty neat! I couldn't help but think about the analogies to people writing book reviews on as I read this section. As a result of reading this essay, Netscape chose to open up its software and escaped oblivion in the process while undergoing the assault from Microsoft's Explorer program.
The key limitation of open software is noted on page 57, 'It's fairly clear that one cannot code from the ground up in bazaar style.' This sentence refers to the theme of the essay. A bazaar is an open market where everyone is free to evaluate software and decide to use or improve it. A cathedral refers to closed, proprietary programming where the software is kept pure of outside influences and is developed in a small team, usually with a hierarchical organizational structure. The choice of comparisons is interesting, because the internalized rewards of working on open software are more akin to building a cathedral than to bustling in a bazaar. In a sense, Mr. Raymond's bazaar is also very cathedral-like in the best sense of that concept.
The next essay, Homesteading the Noosphere, looks at the motivations of the developers and why open source development works. His basic analogy is to 'gift cultures' where people compete for status by the size and value of the gifts they can give others. This has long been true of elites. Since software developers are and feel like they are part of an elite, this is not surprising. His test of the concept is that credit for the work done is jealousy respected. Although Mr. Raymond doesn't say much about it, I suspect that the academic tradition of scholarly papers to advance knowledge is a fundamental experience and construct familiar to many hackers. Naturally, much knowledge advancement has failed to have immediate economic consequences in the past, and knowledge development occurred anyway. Anyone who has read the creativity literature knows that creativity is primarily its own reward for the joy of the task. That research is not referenced here. Mr. Raymond is not an academic, even though he thinks like one in many ways.
The next essay, The Magic Cauldron, takes a look at the long-term economic consequences of the open software movement, and its implications for developing future software. His fundamental point is that 95 percent of all software has use value, rather than value as code that can be sold to someone else. Because of this, any software developer of code that has only use value would be foolish to give up the open source code benefits. He proceeds to provide very helpful examples, and posits future models for this. I suspect that in ten years, this essay will be considered the most important one in the book, while today the title one is. Share this essay with every executive and software development person you know!
The final essay, The Revenge of the Hackers, is a brief memoir about the author's experiences since publication of his essay, The Cathedral & The Bazaar, and helps put his ideas into better context for their impact on others.
If you are interested in becoming a top hacker, be sure to look in the appendix for the essay, How To Become a Hacker.
This book raises many other fundamental questions that the author is unprepared to address at this time. Perhaps one of the most obvious is that with embedded microprocessors headed for virtually every product, should the designers of the products that will employ these microprocessors also use the 'open design scheme' structure? I suspect that they should. It is natural to go from there to consider business model development as another place where this structure would work. I'm sure you will come up with your own, better examples.
Basically, what is described here is the paradigm for how to create better results by harnessing more minds. Normally, development results have been reduced and time to completion has been stretched out by increasing involvement. We seem now to have moved past that fundamental barrier . . . much like when we first passed the sound barrier with airplanes. Where can we go next? I think the answer is anywhere we want.
After you read this book, please ask yourself how you could apply this development model to important aspects of your working and personal lives. You will have to become more open about sharing your ideas and concerns, but the payoffs should be tremendous!
25 internautes sur 26 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Murky intrigue 26 octobre 2000
Par Roy Troxel - Publié sur
I'm a linux newbie, and I found this book to be revealing and intriguing, but often murky as well.
I like the way the author gets down to business in regard to what computing is all about: program languages talking to hardware. He explains how hackers (as opposed to crackers) have been playing with computers before there were PCs or Macs. Having worked as a PC\LAN technician for the past eight years, I found Raymond's hacker viewpoint to be a unifying thread through the current maze of operating systems, networking and hardware. Because his explanations aren't vendor-specific, I don't have to spend days poring over manuals and web pages - just hours.
Additionally, Raymond's explanation of the open source movement and its relation to the information tech industry cuts through the fog of white papers and propaganda from Microsoft, Novell, Cisco, etc. For example, I didn't realize that 60% of the internet servers actually run on Apache software.
The only drawback to this book is that Raymond himself can be foggy. His writing style can lapse into long collections of words like:
"Most people have an intuitive model of cooperative behavior that goes much like this. It's not actually a good diagnosis of the economic problems of open-source, which are free-rider (underprovision) rather than congested-public-good (overuse). Nevertheless, it is the analogy I hear behind most off-the-cuff objections."
What the hell does that mean, Eric? Surely, clarity is a virtue to be cultivated in both programming AND documentation. It's worth noting that Mr. Raymond is the most obscure when discussing business and financial implications of the open source movement.
Still, the book has helped me a lot, which is why it rates four stars.
21 internautes sur 23 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 More analysis than manifesto, and better for it 20 mars 2000
Par Penmachine - Publié sur
The cult-like status of this book and its Web antecedents in the Linux community isn't surprising. But even for those of us who aren't staunch open-source partisans, it's a surprisingly well-argued (if a bit scattered) and concise collection.
Taken as a whole, the book makes a series of good business cases for when opening the source code to software is appropriate and potentially profitable -- as well as maximally efficient. I was pleased that Raymond acknowledges that open source is _not_ always the best way to go, even while noting that it will probably be more prevalent over time.
Raymond's fervour about open source shows through, particularly late in the book, but it doesn't detract from the largely objective analyses he makes -- so his arguments carry force.
Worth reading for anyone who's a programmer, a hacker, or interested in the politics of the software business. Or anyone else, for that matter.
26 internautes sur 31 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 The Anthropology of Hackerdom 15 août 2002
Par Lloyd A. Conway - Publié sur
Eric Raymond is the Margaret Mead of the Open Source movement. His analysis of the gift culture as a model for explaining why hackers write software without recieving direct financial compensation is original, and as far as I know, unique. The economic implications are vast: if programmers write programs as a hobby, and do not stand in need of income for doing so (assume that they have day jobs), with rewards being in the form of status and reputation, then why buy the equivalent of what they're giving away?
Linux is the focus of this branch of the hacker-programming movement, which can also be seen at work in Apache and Java. The nature of the movement - everyone agreeing to play by Open Source rules, a leader (Linus Torvalds) who sets goals but does not exert formal authority, and a market (the Bazaar) where knowledge is dispersed throughout, reminds one of the Austrian Economists, who believed that a system operating as a spontaneous order would show greater productivity than a command economy, because of the exponentially greater amount of brain power in use. Raymond makes much the same point, when he argues that, "With enough eyes, all bugs are shallow."
For Microsoft, this is a deadly threat. Proprietary software and operating systems are expensive, to develop and to buy. If Open Source products are seen as being of like kind and quality, them software becomes a commodity, and branded, proprietary products, and the businesses that sell them, are facing inevitible decline in their core market.
If Raymond's thesis is correct (I believe, as a layman, that it is), then by 2010, Windows may have gone the way of the British Empire - living in memore (digital or otherwise) only.
-LLoyd A. Conway
6 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A classic. 23 octobre 2004
Par Elizabeth Krumbach - Publié sur
Eric Scott Raymond is described as "An Accidental Revolutionary," as he took a leading role in analyzing and documenting the changes and growth of the Open Source (or "Free Software") movement that he, as a programmer, is part of. He's one of the "famous" people in hacker culture.

This collection of essays by ESR gives the reader a glimpse into the world of Hackers (good programmers, not to be confused with people who break into computers, those are "crackers"). He goes into how and why it works, what the pros and cons of open source vs. closed source software is, and predicts where things will go in the future.

Because this book is separated into individual essays that he has written, it's easy just to go through and read what you want. But to any person who is playing a part, or who wants to play a part in the hacker world, the whole thing is a must read. It gives you a lot to think about when it comes to the open source world, and builds up a great respect and understanding of the people pioneering it.
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