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The Chemistry of Beer: The Science in the Suds [Anglais] [Broché]

Roger Barth

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Table des matières

PREFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii ABOUT THE AUTHOR xvii PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS xviii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Brief History 1 1.2 The World of Beer 7 1.3 Beer and Chemistry 9 1.4 Alcohol and Prohibition 10 1.5 Beer Tradition 12 Bibliography 13 Questions 15 2 WHAT IS BEER? 17 2.1 Beer Ingredients 17 2.2 Beer as Food 21 2.3 How Beer Is Made 23 Bibliography 31 Questions 31 3 CHEMISTRY BASICS 33 3.1 Atoms 33 3.2 Energy Levels and the Periodic Table 34 3.3 Compounds 36 3.4 Ionic Bonds 38 3.5 Covalent Bonds and Molecules 40 3.6 Molecular Shape 43 3.7 Polarity and Electronegativity 46 3.8 Intermolecular Forces 48 3.9 Molecular Kinetics 51 3.10 Chemical Reactions and Equations 52 3.11 Mixtures 53 Bibliography 53 Questions 53 Appendix to Chapter 3: Measurement in Chemistry 56 Numbers 56 International System 57 Mass Relationships in Compounds 63 Composition of Mixtures 64 Bibliography 66 Questions 67 4 WATER 69 4.1 The Water Molecule 69 4.2 Acids and Bases 71 4.3 pH 73 4.4 Ions and Beer 76 4.5 Water Treatment 79 Bibliography 85 Questions 86 5 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 89 5.1 Structural Formulas 89 5.2 Functional Groups 91 5.3 Using the Functional Group Guide 107 Bibliography 110 Questions 110 6 SUGARS AND STARCHES 113 6.1 Monosaccharides 113 6.2 Chirality 115 6.3 Disaccharides 120 6.4 Polysaccharides 121 Bibliography 126 Questions 127 7 MILLING AND MASHING 131 7.1 Milling 132 7.2 Mashing 133 7.3 Enzymes and Proteins 135 7.4 Mashing Process 141 7.5 Dextrins, Light Beer, and Malt Liquor 146 Bibliography 146 Questions 147 8 WORT SEPARATION AND BOILING 149 8.1 Wort Separation 149 8.2 Boiling 152 8.3 Hops 153 8.4 Hot Break 155 8.5 Chilling 158 Bibliography 159 Questions 159 9 FERMENTATION 161 9.1 The Anatomy of Brewing 161 9.2 Energy and Bonds 165 9.3 Glycolysis 168 9.4 Ethanol Synthesis 170 9.5 Aerobic and Anaerobic Reactions 170 9.6 Higher Alcohols 172 9.7 Esters 173 Bibliography 174 Questions 175 10 TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS 177 10.1 Carbohydrate Content 177 10.2 Temperature 183 10.3 Color 185 10.4 Alcohol Content 187 10.5 pH 190 10.6 Sensory Analysis 192 Bibliography 192 Questions 192 11 THE CHEMISTRY OF FLAVOR 195 11.1 Anatomy of Flavor 195 11.2 Taste 196 11.3 Aroma 198 11.4 Mouth Feel 200 11.5 Flavor Units 201 11.6 Flavor Compounds in Beer 202 Bibliography 207 Questions 208 12 THE CHEMISTRY OF BEER STYLES 211 12.1 Beer Style Families 211 12.2 Realizing a Style 215 Bibliography 222 Questions 223 13 FOAM AND HAZE 225 13.1 Surfaces 225 13.2 Surface Energy 225 13.3 Surfactants 227 13.4 Haze 227 13.5 Foam 231 13.6 Foam Issues 236 13.7 Nitrogen and Widgets 237 Bibliography 238 Questions 238 14 BEER PACKAGING 241 14.1 Casks and Kegs 241 14.2 Glass 243 14.3 Metals 244 14.4 Aluminum 245 14.5 Bottling and Canning 247 14.6 Microbe Reduction 249 Bibliography 249 Questions 249 15 BEER FLAVOR STABILITY 251 15.1 Typical Flavor Changes 251 15.2 The Role of Oxygen 252 15.3 Staling Prevention 260 Bibliography 262 Questions 263 16 BREWING AT HOME 265 16.1 Safety Issues 266 16.2 Full Mash Brewing 267 16.3 Full Mash Brewing Procedure 277 16.4 Extract Brewing 283 16.5 Bottling 286 16.6 Starter Brewing Systems 288 16.7 Recipes 290 Bibliography 293 Questions 293 GLOSSARY 295 INDEX 317

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