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Douglas T. Kenrick
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Dr. Saad has been a pioneer in bringing evolutionary ideas to the field of business. An overwhelming body of literature has now demonstrated that human decision-making is influenced by adaptively motivated biases we inherited from our ancestors. It follows that those motivated biases will influence how we allocate our scarce economic resources. This has profound implications for consumer behavior, as Geoffrey Miller and others (Jill Sundie at UT, Vlad Griskevicius at Minnesota, and Josh Ackerman at MIT) have been arguing. These researchers have also been providing ample empirical demonstrations of the power of that viewpoint. Gad Saad has been been advancing an evolutionary approach to business for years, sometimes encountering opposition from colleagues in his field (who labor under a set of false Blank Slate assumptions that Saad reviews in the first chapter, along with brief rebuttals).
The consumer goods in Saad's clever title are not chosen randomly, but are matched to what he views as four overriding Darwinian pursuits:
1. Survival: We are here because our ancestors were inclined to eat fatty cooked meats and other calorie-dense foods scorned by all California vegans today. Transported into the present, our ancestors would have lined up at McDonald's for those juicy burgers in his title. In the modern world, Saad notes that the top ten restaurants are McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Burger King, Starbuck's, Subway, Pizza Hut, Wendy's, Taco Bell, Domino's Pizza, and Dunkin' Donuts. That diet does not help us live to 90, but the inclinations that drive those choices probably helped our ancestors survive until reproductive age.
2. Reproduction: As Saad notes, men are overwhelmingly the consumers of pornography, and this sex difference is just the tip of the iceberg. Indeed, flashy overpowered sports cars are also overwhelmingly a male purchase, and, Saad argues, mainly used as a sexual signal (and indeed the media from Fox News to the Belfast Telegraph is abuzz this week with a series of studies by Jill Sundie and colleagues that demonstrates the links between Porsches and mating displays). In Saad's own research, he finds that simply driving an expensive sports car triggers a boost in men's testosterone levels.
3. Kin Selection: Saad notes that many of our purchases are made for direct kin. This month, I've shelled out money for Legos, art supplies, summer recreational programs, as well as a number of special foods aimed to please my seven-year-old son. I just got back from lunch with him, his older brother, and my two grandchildren, and to test your knowledge of marketing behavior and inclusive fitness, guess who paid?
4. Reciprocity: We not only buy gifts and lunches for our kin, we buy gifts for friends, pick up the tab at the restaurant when we're with close friends, and so on. We do so not because we're economically "irrational," but because it feels good to make our close associates feel good. Indeed, gift-giving is linked not only to friends and kin, it is used to woo mates and to maintain relationships with them (think Valentine's day and anniversary presents). I enjoy Saad's abundant use of statistics to bolster the points. He informs us that fully 10 percent of retail purchases in North America are for gifts, which boils down to $1,215 per person, which starts to add up after a while (to a whopping $253 billion per year in the economy, in fact).
One could quibble with Saad's list of motivational forces, but I will instead simply agree with something that David Buss says in the foreward to the Consuming Instinct: This is a book that should be required reading at business schools. Besides a broad-ranging overview of research on marketing, psychology, economics, anthropology, and biology, Saad peppers the book with lots of take-home messages for consumers, policy-makers, and business people (this is an appealing feature of books aimed at the business crowd -- a la Heath and Heath's Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die and Goldstein, Martin, and Cialdini's Yes!: 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive- practical bottom-line suggestions of how the science can be used).
If you are either a professional businessperson or simply a consumer, I would challenge you read this book and Geoffrey Miller's Spent: Sex, Evolution, and Consumer Behavior -- and not come away thinking very differently about people's motives for buying the many, many, things they buy.
Doug Kenrick is author of Sex, Murder, and the Meaning of Life: A Psychologist Investigates How Evolution, Cognition, and Complexity are Revolutionizing our View of Human Nature
6 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile
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The aphorist, Aaron Haspel, once wrote: “Once you see human interaction as a contest to signal mating fitness, you never see it as anything else.” That’s both interesting and true, but for the purposes of this review, I’m going to need to paint with a broader brush: once you see all aspects of human existence as a product of evolution, you never see them as anything else. Modern-day consumerism is no exception and it’s the subject of Gad Saad’s fantastic book The Consuming Instinct.
Saad is a professor of marketing at Concordia University and writes a popular blog at Psychology Today called Homo Consumericus. Using various parts of evolutionary theory, Saad dissects modern-day consumer behavior with applaudable gusto. Parts of his analysis are sure to be offensive to some, which suggests to me that he’s on to something. As a general rule of thumb, if some people are strongly offended by an idea, it’s worth giving it special consideration. This is because many truths simply aren’t all that pleasant. Many people respond to these types of books with knee-jerk reactions full of personal attacks and hatred because they confuse positive statements with normative ones. I would urge these people to consider that explaining how things are says nothing about how they ought to be.
The subtitle of the book is What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature. Not surprisingly, they reveal quite a bit. These four items speak to the four Darwinian pursuits that underlie human existence: survival, reproduction, kin selection, and reciprocity. The consuming instinct, then, can be studied under the lens of evolutionary psychology (EP), which is a theoretical framework that proposes that the human mind evolved by the same Darwinian forces that shaped all animals. The human brain is simply another product of the dual evolutionary processes called natural selection and sexual selection. More people are familiar with former and not the latter, which can explain things like art, religion, and consumer behavior.
It’s worth noting that amongst those who believe in evolution, there seems to be a small contingent of people who believe that evolution can explain the human foot, but anything above the neck is off limits. In other words, they are hesitant to give any credence to the field of evolutionary psychology because they don’t like some of the logical implications that follow. Like Saad, I believe this is an egregious mistake. The human brain is an amazing thing, but the fact that some people want to elevate it to something that was created outside the bounds of the natural world is silly. I think Malcolm de Chazal would remind us of the following: “Monkeys are superior to men in this: when a monkey looks into the mirror, he sees a monkey.”
Political correctness be damned, Saad takes a refreshing and no holds barred approach to debunking the myths of social constructivism, particularly the myths surrounding gender differences. The Harvard evolutionist E. O. Wilson, once said: “The genes hold culture on a leash. The leash is very long, but inevitably values will be constrained in accordance with their effects on the human gene pool.” Anyone who understands the power of evolutionary theory will understand that marketing efforts for products that don’t align with our natural instincts are doomed to fail. Excellent marketers are intuitively well aware of this reality too — they understand that the way to market beer to men is different than is way to market cosmetics to women.
There is a reason why men consume more pornography, more Ferraris, and are more likely to participate in extreme sports than are women. These differences are due to a deep rooted evolutionary causes and it’s a sad state of affairs when one is considered a cultural deviant for suggesting that men and women, thanks to the process of evolution, have deep biological differences. I’ll proudly wear the label of “cultural deviant” if that’s the term used to describe people who are more interested in knowing the truth than they are in hearing fictitious, yet comforting stories.
Here’s an interesting fact from the book: studies show that when men drive a Porsche they experience an increase in testosterone levels. It appears that the mere act of sexual signaling can cause an increase in testosterone in men. How many men would care about driving a Porsche if no one were around to watch though? I suspect that the answer is not many. I think this is why you see men cruising around in Porsches and Ferraris in crowded hotspots like Chicago’s Viagra Triangle on a Saturday night and not in downtown Longmont, Colorado. This, of course, prompts an interesting philosophical question: If a sexual signal is flashed and no one is there to receive it, does it really exist?
Another thing that’s bound to upset social constructivists is that universal metrics of beauty do exist, and are not arbitrary social constructs. Studies show that a deep male voice is universally attractive, which makes sense since it indicates a greater exposure to pubertal testosterone. Studies also show that women with the optimum waist-to-hip ratio of around 0.7 are preferred by men around the world. Universally, for men, achieving high status in the social hierarchy matters greatly if one wants to be an attractive mate, while, for women, it’s physical beauty that matters most.
One of my favorite chapters was called “Marketing Hope by Selling Lies”. In the chapter Saad explains that there are many unpleasant biological-based realities, like aging, mortality, sexual boredom in monogamous relationships, and the fact that children are born with innate differences in abilities. Marketers, and self-help gurus of all varieties, see this as an opportunity. After-all, it provides them a chance to sell hope, which is often nothing but an especially insidious form of snake oil.
Saad sees religion as the greatest (and perhaps evilest) product ever devised. He writes: “Religion possesses unique attributes that render it a marketer’s dream product.” Indeed it is. A number of televangelists get in front of audience every Sunday and tell their delusional, yet optimistic followers that God has great things in store for them in the afterlife if only they give up their worldly possessions to their preacher in this life. Don’t worry, God wants the preacher to have your money — apparently He said so. Alas, these religious charlatans are smart enough to know that it helps to plant the seed of fear early if you want to swindle people out of their money later in life.
The Argentine shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis once famously said: “If women didn’t exist, all the money in the world would have no meaning.” Even if you already intuitively understand why that is so, I highly recommend reading The Consuming Instinct anyway.
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Format: Format Kindle
Gad Saad explains his theories of an evolutionary basis for consumer behavior. Since the evolution of the human brain mostly took place before modern civilization, the concerns, cravings, and aspirations of our hunter-gatherer ancestors out in the Paleolithic wilderness are the same ones that drive us in the wilds of the modern malls, clubs, and churches. This is backed up with meticulous notes from Gad’s and others empirical research into evolutionary psychology, consumer ethnography, behavioral finance, sociobiology, and myriad other subjects.
There's an equal treatment of theory and application. For example, it's joked about and much supposed that women find men in expensive cars more attractive. It makes some sense that high status men have more resources to provide, but can it be true in our sophisticated, post-modern society? It turns out it is. Studies are presented that show women find men, any men, attractive in an expensive car. The luxury and prestige of the car is transferred to the man driving it. It's also shown that men's testosterone level increases when driving an expensive sports car as opposed to driving a regular car. Clearly there are unconscious patterns at work in consumers' minds that fit patterns that have developed long ago and are still with us.
There are many other examples and presentations. One notable subject that the author has gotten a lot of attention for is his criticism of religion and defense of atheism. There’s not much more I can add to that debate, but I think Gad’s own research frames the issue in surprising ways. Although he does give his thoughts about the idea of God (he obviously doesn’t believe in it), the complaints, similar to other atheists and agnostics, are mostly with the practice of religion. Considering his family's experiences with religious conflicts, which he touches on in his chapter about altruism and social networks, his view is understandable. Religion is practiced by flawed people beholden to evolutionary urges, so obviously there are going to be problems, some serious. However, the same cultural and evolutionary forces that, say, shape a group to become more cohesive and conforming in times of stress also shape them to be more religious. There are desires and cravings that prompt scandalous acts, but there are also virtuous values that result in good ones. Religion may be a way to exploit our evolutionary behavior, or, just as plausible, it's a product of our evolutionary behavior. Regardless of how you feel about, it's an important topic worth considering.
Another part that was of particular interest to me was his thoughts on the intersection of neuroscience and business. One imagines the purveyors of neuro-this and neuro-that consulting some turn-of-the-century pathological illustration of the brain diagrammed with each part associated with some function. The hippocampus controls organization, the amygdala controls fear, the basal ganglia controls some other thing, etc. Fortunately, Gad puts this confusion of the map for the territory reductivisim to rest. Complex systems such as human behavior and personality are much more than the sum of their parts. There isn't a magic bullet to control or program them. The best explanations to deal with them holistically are decision heuristics governed by evolutionary psychology such as what is presented in The Consuming Instinct.
This book was enjoyable and informative. Anyone involved in selling products to consumers, studying their behavior, or even just wishing to get more insight in their own consuming habits will find this book valuable. Highly recommended.
Anthony R. Dickinson
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The latest in a series of related writings from Gad Saad, this volume is a flirtatiously styled yet seriously presented text which seeks to enlighten the reader concerning the biological basis of consumer choice in the market place. Indeed, the book could as well be subtitled `Satisfying the Darwinian fears linked to survival, mating, family relationships and friendships', but may then likely sell fewer copies in the airport bookstore. Essential reading for all sales and marketing professionals, but also for anyone wishing to study explanations (if not the ultimate causes) of individual and collective consumer decision-making. Not another `self-help' book, however (far from it !), the author's intentions are to simply defend his main thesis that, "Homo consumericus is a Darwinian organism shaped by millions of years of evolution, [our] consumer choices manifestations of their common biological heritage", and thus possessive of a common `consumer instinct' rooted in our human biological history. Although primarily an academic work written in clearly accessible prose, addressing (and presenting evidence for) largely the concerns and findings of academic research, Saad (successfully in my view) informs his readers as consumers, marketers, and policy decision makers.
Combining much of the same ground covered in the recently reviewed `Genome' (Ridley, 2011) and `Unthinking' (Beckworth, 2011) (see Metapsy reviews at:
[...] & [...]), Saad champions the cause of the view from evolutionary psychology that many consumer choices are driven by (if not at least explainable by) an appeal to their subsequent display as `extended phenotypes' (Dawkins); discussing cars, high heeled shoes, cosmetic use, and other luxury goods, as determined by their ostentatious personal possession, to be `artifacts rooted in a biological imperative'. Each of the 10 chapters (plus a concluding statement) cover a different exemplar area for exploration of Saad's thesis, with excellent referencing of the key papers and research findings supporting his claims for those wishing to follow up with the source literature. And the conclusions are consistent. Discussing fast food choices, the most popular (or at least globally best-selling) products are "directly linked in their congruence with an evolved predisposition" for fatty foods in lean times (Ch. 2). "Darwinian forces compel consumers to partake in a wide range of investments [read, purchases, for the purpose of] solidifying bonds of kinship" (Ch. 4). As for buying rounds in the bar, "Human sociality [online and offline these days] are driven by the evolutionary imperative to form bonds of reciprocity" (Ch. 6). In this sense, Saad's thesis is well presented and documented, with plenty of sex (as in reproductive success, not socialised `gender studies') thrown in as direct exemplar material for consideration (and entertaining if not newly informative reading), providing a text well worthy of addition to the two books mentioned above.
Without giving too much away here, the current reviewer envisages that some marketers and/or advertising professionals may find this text a little burdensome in using its findings to drive the details of their own next campaign with the optimum `market fitness' in mind. However, this is neither a failing of the work, nor was it (I believe) Saad's intention to suggest what the consumer industry `should' instead be doing. The author's explanations and thesis' predictions (this is documented science after all, not post-MBA marketing critique fodder), if thought about seriously, may nonetheless be of significant use to those embarked upon a career involving the need/desire to influence the decision-making and motivations of others, whilst also (perhaps) help explain why they themselves made some of the investments that they did (and why, at the time of purchasing them !).
Academic Research Laboratory (ARL, HK), KBET+ (USA/China). July, 2012.