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The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail
 
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The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail [Format Kindle]

Clayton M. Christensen
4.7 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (3 commentaires client)

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What do the Honda Supercub, Intel's 8088 processor, and hydraulic excavators have in common? They are all examples of disruptive technologies that helped to redefine the competitive landscape of their respective markets. These products did not come about as the result of successful companies carrying out sound business practices in established markets. In The Innovator's Dilemma, author Clayton M. Christensen shows how these and other products cut into the low end of the marketplace and eventually evolved to displace high-end competitors and their reigning technologies.

At the heart of The Innovator's Dilemma is how a successful company with established products keeps from being pushed aside by newer, cheaper products that will, over time, get better and become a serious threat. Christensen writes that even the best-managed companies, in spite of their attention to customers and continual investment in new technology, are susceptible to failure no matter what the industry, be it hard drives or consumer retailing. Succinct and clearly written, The Innovator's Dilemma is an important book that belongs on every manager's bookshelf. Highly recommended. --Harry C. Edwards

La revue Résumés

L'iceberg innovation
C'est avec une certaine jouissance intérieure que l'auteur de ce livre fait ce constat paradoxal : même les meilleurs dirigeants, travaillant dans les compagnies les plus habituées au succès, utilisant les meilleurs outils managériaux, peuvent conduire leurs firmes à la faillite. Puisque le fameux naufrage de 1912 est revenu à la mode, on pourrait dire que toutes sont menacées par " l'effet Titanic ". C'est-à-dire, malgré leur équipement managérial et financier de pointe, de rencontrer un jour un iceberg, ce qui reviendrait plutôt, en l'occurrence, à passer à côté d'une innovation décisive.
Une de celles que Clayton Christensen a baptisé " innovations de rupture ". Une hantise partagée par le patron d'Intel, Andrew Grove, aujourd'hui sur le point de prendre sa retraite, qui faisait l'éloge, dans le premier de nos "La revue Résumés", de la paranoïa comme instrument de survie entrepreneuriale. L'approche de Christensen est sans doute moins flamboyante. Elle a l'immense mérite de sortir des incantations pour proposer des solutions en termes d'organisation à l'angoissant problème qu'il soulève.

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Commentaires client les plus utiles
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Toujours aussi pertinent 26 avril 2014
Par Romur TOP 500 COMMENTATEURS
Format:Format Kindle|Achat vérifié
Depuis bientôt 20 ans, ce livre est devenu un classique et ses idées se sont assez bien diffusées... mais pas partout ! On voit encore des entreprises qui sombrent face à l’émergence d’une concurrence nouvelle, d’une technologie de rupture.
Christensen expose, à travers une série d’exemples historiques issus de différents secteurs, les caractéristiques qui permettent de reconnaitre une véritable rupture et analyse l’impact qu’elles ont eu sur des leaders historiques. En seconde partie, il expose les stratégies que peut mettre une entreprise établie pour gérer ces ruptures et éviter de se faire emporter par l’émergence de concurrents inattendus.
Lisez-le ! Cette vision est plus que jamais d’actualité dans notre monde piloté par l’innovation, peut-être même dans VOTRE entreprise.
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4.0 étoiles sur 5 Un livre à lire malgré son "viel" âge ! 13 mars 2012
Format:Format Kindle
Malgré ses 15 ans, ce livre est encore très actuel. Si certains exemples semblent, à première vue, obsolètes, on se rend vite compte, grâce la façon dont Clayton M. Christensen aborde le sujet (avec recul et ingéniosité), que les problèmes rencontrés par les plus grands innovateurs ont toujours été les mêmes.

Vous comprendrez pourquoi ils n'ont pas sur rester au firmament, et comment ils ont manqué l'opportunité de se renouveler.

Je ne peux que vous conseiller la lecture de ce livre.
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1 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Excellent ! 8 novembre 2001
Par Un client
Format:Broché
Une lecture précieuse à une époque où la créativité devient une question de survie. Essayez aussi 'Webs of Innovation' par Alexander Loudon.
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Amazon.com: 4.4 étoiles sur 5  213 commentaires
341 internautes sur 356 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Disruptive technologies create a threat to large companies 13 novembre 2001
Par Coert Visser - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
This is a book is about successful, well-led companies -often market leaders- that carefully pay attention to what customers need and that invest heavily in new technologies, but still loose their market leadership suddenly. This can happen when disruptive technologies enter the stage. Most technologies improve the performance of existing products in relation to the criteria which existing customers have always used. These technologies are called sustaining technologies. Disruptive technologies do something different. They create an entirely new value proposition. They improve the performance of the product in relation to new performance criteria. Products which are based on disruptive technologies are often smaller, cheaper, simpler, and easier to use. However, the moment they are introduced, they can not at once compete against the traditional products and so they cannot directly reach a big market. Christensen researched how disruptive technologies have developed in the computer disk industry, an extremely rapid evolving industry. He identified six steps in the emergence of disruptive technologies:
1. Disruptive technologies often are invented in traditional large companies. Example: at Seagate Technology, the biggest producer of 5,25 disks, engineers in 1985 designed the first 3,5 disk.
2. The marketing department examines first reactions from important customers to the new technology. Then they notice that existing customers are not very interested and they conclude that not a lot of money can be made with the new product. Example: this is what happened at Seagate. The 3,5 disk's were put upon the shelf.
3. The company keeps on investing in the traditional technology. Performance improvement of the traditional technology is highly appreciated by existing customers and a lot of money is being made. Example: Seagate invested in the 5,25 disk technology. This led to considerable improvement of the technology and to a considerable improvement of sales.
4. New companies are started up (by ex-employees of the traditional companies) and markets for the new technology emerge by trial and error. Example: ex-Seagate people started up Corner Peripherals. This company focused on the small emerging market for 3,5 inch disks. In the beginning this was only for the laptop market.
5. The new players move up in the market. The performance of the new technologies gets better after some time, enabling them to compete better and better with the traditional companies and products. Example: the performance of the 3,5 disks improved drastically. The 3,5 inch disk moved up in the market, to the personal computer market. Corner pushed Seagate out of the PC market for 3,5 inch disk drives.
6. Traditional companies try to defend their market position and to get along in the new market. Often they notice that they have fallen behind so far, that they cannot keep up. Example: Seagate did not succeed in capturing a significant part of the new market for 3,5 inch disk drives for PC's.
The events described above can be understood by the four principles of disruptive technologies which Christensen formulates:
1. In well-led companies it is customers, not managers, who actually determine resources allocation. This is a proposition of the resources dependence theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) which is supported strongly by the research of Christensen. In essence: middle managers will not tend to invest in technologies that are not directly appreciated by important (large) clients, because they will not be able to get quick financial gains by doing this.
2. Small markets can not fulfil the growth need of large companies. For several reasons, growth is important for companies. Unfortunately, the bigger the company, the harder it is to continue growth. A small company (40 million sales) with a growth target of 20%, must achieve 8 million extra sales. A large company (4 billion sales), has to achieve 800 million of extra sales! Emerging markets often simply are not large enough to fulfil such growth needs. They can, however, fulfil the growth needs of new small companies.
3. Markets that do not exist can not be analysed. The ultimate applications of disruptive technologies can not be foreseen on forehand. Failure is an intrinsic unavoidable step to success.
4. Technology supply does not always equal the market demand. The speed of technological progress is often bigger than the speed with which the customer demand develops. By improving the performance of the disruptive technologies (for instance the 3,5 inch disks, first only used in the laptop market), they became suitable for the larger PC-market.
These steps explain why traditional companies are often not capable of applying disruptive technologies. Christensen argues that you can not resist these four principles. What you can do however, is use them to your advantage. For instance: in a large company you can create an 'island' where the new technology is developed for the new market. Also it is possible get an ownership in emerging companies which develop the new technologies (several companies have done this successfully).
I think the innovator's Dilemma is an excellent book. The ideas are empirically foudend and together they form a coherent theoretical framework. The examples from the computer disk industry, the steel industry and others, are very well-documented and interesting. The book is logically structured and reads easily.
146 internautes sur 157 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Identifying the horns of the dilemma. 30 janvier 2000
Par Dave Kinnear - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié|Achat vérifié
Prior to reading this book, I chalked up the misfortunes of the well run companies of our time to the vagaries of the market place and put them in the same shoulder shrugging category of "bad things happen to good people." But now I have a new way of looking at success and failure due to disruptive technology. I better understand my own frustrations of trying to do new things in a large corporation given the further insight from Christensen that assets are really managed by customers, not our own managers. That is what makes this book scary. There seems little hope of any large corporation staying on top of disruptive technology unless they follow the prescription of segregating those innovations from the usual corporate overhead structure. That means spinning off groups, taking equity positions in start-up firms, and/or completely funding start-ups to grow the new markets. The writing is clear, the data gathered is thorough and fully documented with ample notes, the logic is concise, and the conclusions are entirely logical. Christensen gives us formulas for success including agnostic marketing to help us recognize emerging markets. The case studies are at once interesting and compelling. This is a must read for managers in any industry. Dr. Andrew S. Grove, Chairman and CEO of Intel Corporation had this to say, "This book addresses a tough problem that most successful companies will face eventually. It's lucid, analytical-and scary."
142 internautes sur 154 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 A new paradigm 12 août 1998
Par Duwayne Anderson - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié
We have all seen large, powerful, and successful corporations upstaged and driven out of business by startups using new ideas to grow exponentially and dominate the new business landscape. In his book "The Innovator's Dilemma," Clayton M. Christensen provides a unique and novel theory that explains why entrenched corporations often fail to capitalize on such new ideas, and fall prey to firms with fewer initial resources. With enough data and case histories to make even the skeptic sit up and take notice, Christensen sculpts an argument that demands our attention at once. Step by step he shows that such extinctions come about not necessarily because of arrogance and dogmatism (though these play their parts) but because of the architectural and organizational structures that make good companies good. Like Einstein's theory of relativity, with its concepts of relative time and space, some of Christensen's conclusions seem unintuitive. Others even seem contrary to phy! sical reality. Sometimes it really is wrong to listen to your customers. Sometimes it is better to build a product with low margin and a limited market rather than build a product with high margin and large, virtually guaranteed market.
Christensen builds his thesis upon the notion that technology comes in two broad flavors: sustaining and disruptive. Established product lines use sustaining technology to make incremental improvements. In the language of biology, sustaining technology facilitates gradual Darwinian evolution where incremental improvements coupled with survival of the fittest lead to gradual product improvement. For example, tire manufacturers use sustaining technology to enhance the tread, sidewall, and belt design of automotive tires. Sustaining technology is not trivial, and often involves tremendous expenditures of capital. It is, however, what established companies do best, and these companies have developed very effective organizational and manag! erial structures for dealing with it.
Disruptive technol! ogy, on the other hand, approaches product evolution outside the sustaining envelope. Disruptive technologies typically offer a cheaper solution to a small, often unidentified subgroup. Once established within this small market the disruptive technology evolves through sustaining technology until it eventually satisfies the performance criteria of more traditional markets. When this happens, the disruptive technology bursts onto the scene, attacking the soft underbelly of the established corporations, often with fatalistic consequences. In the parlance of evolutionary biology, disruptive technology is like punctuated evolution; fast with significant changes in the gene pool.
Christensen may be excused for lacking the breadth to discuss similarities between such diverse fields as biology and business management. Still, the book would have benefited immeasurably by a co-author in the field who might have offered greater insight into universal principles governing the evol! ution of complex systems. Repeatedly I found myself going to books by authors such as Richard Dawkins and Stephen Jay Gould to refine my mental image of the multidimensional landscape in which biological organisms and industrial businesses compete for the resources of survival.
The book is well written and persuasive in its arguments. It questions many established ideas and shows that often these ideas fail to apply to disruptive technologies. Often the best corporations are especially susceptible. Defense against disruptive technologies does not come from being smarter and working closer with customers. Paradoxically, working closely with customers and following established rules for corporate investment often make a company more susceptible to harm from disruptive technologies. Companies naturally evolve toward higher-end products with greater margins. Consequently, they find it difficult to enter markets with disruptive technologies that often begin with low margi! ns, are technologically simple, and do not have a clearly d! efined customer base. Such markets are ideal for start-up firms. The author suggests, with several case histories, that one of the best ways for established firms to deal with disruptive technologies is to spin off autonomous organizations that exist within the economic constraints of disruptive technologies.
The author does an excellent job of using examples, drawing most from the disk-drive industry. He also includes examples from the computer, motorcycle, steel, automotive, and earth-moving industries as well. In each case he explains how disruptive technologies emerged and often destroyed well-run companies that were following all the established rules. This drives home the fact that disruptive technologies pose such a great risk precisely because they can destroy industries not only in spite, but because they follow established business practices.
After describing disruptive technologies, with historical cases to illustrate points, the author ends with a case st! udy involving electric vehicles. I found this chapter to be among the weakest, and something of a distraction from the more substantial earlier material. Ironically, in the process of trying to frame electric vehicles as disruptive technology, the author seems to have missed one of the best examples of a disruptive technology, and one that nearly destroyed America's foremost industries: small cars.
Overall, Christensen's work is on a high academic level, though some of the technical material is inconsistent. For example, the ordinates in figures 1.4, 1.5, and 6.1 disagree with each other. The text on page 128 also disagrees with figure 6.1, while the text on page 150 disagrees with figure 7.1. These may be simple examples of typographical errors, but they lessen confidence in the book's technical accuracy. On the positive side, the book has excellent organization and lots of pertinent examples, as well as extensive notes and documentation. The index is also very co! mplete and thorough.
Though Christensen's ideas are new! and radical they are so lucid, logical, and clear that anyone involved in American business cannot afford to ignore them.
Duwayne Anderson
42 internautes sur 43 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 What is the Innovator's Dilemma? 19 janvier 2002
Par Elio Spinello - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
In The Innovator's dilemma, Clayton Christensen describes the dynamics by which some of the largest, most successful companies in America fail due to "good" management. In his analysis, firms that dedicate themselves to listening to and serving their customers the best, place themselves most at risk for future failures as they are overtaken by smaller upstart competitors with innovative technologies.
The Innovator's Dilemma makes a compelling argument based on the author's study of the computer disk drive industry. Disk drive manufacturing was chosen for its frequent turnover of technology and competitors in a relatively short timespan.
Cristensen places technological innovations in two categories: sustaining and disruptive. Sustaining innovations are those that help sustain an organization's existing customer base by improving the performance, capacity, reliability, or value of an existing product technology. Disruptive innovations produce products that are technologically inferior from the perspective of a firm's existing customer base. Disruptive products, however, may include improvements that, while unimportant to the existing market, hold potential for new and emerging markets. Christensen uses the example of the introduction of small 50cc Honda motorcycles in the late 1950's. From the perspective of the existing motorcycle market at the time, the Honda was inferior compared to larger, more powerful motorcycles such as Harley Davidson and BMW. Honda found a niche, however, as a dirt bike - an emerging market that had not been explored by other manufacturers but was ideally suited for a small, inexpensive motorcycle.
Once a market is established for a disruptive technology, it can then evolve into the mainstream and become technologically improved to the point of competing with and eventually overtaking existing mainstream technologies. In the case of Honda, once a market was established, small motorcycles were technologically improved to the point of appealing to a mass market rather than just dirt bike enthusiasts.
Organizations overlook disruptive technologies for a variety of reasons. Often, larger organizations listen to their existing customers and what is important to them, overlooking small, emerging markets. The innovator's dilemma is that at the time disruptive technologies are introduced, mainstream companies are often wildly successful marketing their sustaining technology to existing customers. Investing in disruptive technology necessitates a diversion of resources away from the organization's most profitable activities that its customers are asking for, toward an unproven technology with a small, uncertain market. Disruptive technologies are often not as cost effective to manufacture or sell when they are viewed from the perspective of existing markets. Small 3.5 inch disk drives, for example, initially cost more per megabyte of capacity compared to larger 5.25 inch drives while, and they had less overall capacity Although they were not attractive to desktop computer manufactures, they represented a cost effective solution to the needs of the emerging mobile computer market where size was more important than large capacity.
Citing examples from a number of industries, Christensen makes the point that traditional business planning works well for established markets and sustaining technologies. In the case of disruptive technologies, however, he argues that strategy should be based on discovery of new opportunities and that individuals working on the development and marketing of disruptive technologies should be organizationally separate.
Overall, the Innovator's Dilemma is a concise, well written book in which the author is able to effectively convey a technically complex study on a technically complex industry. Overall, the Innovator's Dilemma should be required reading for anyone in an business planning role.
32 internautes sur 33 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Hindsight is 20/20 28 août 2001
Par J. J. Kwashnak - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Broché
The Innovator's Dilemma presents the idea that even if you do everything right, you can still be wrong if you don't see what's coming. unfortunately, that all depends on what you can see. In this case Christensen's hindsight is 20/20 and he can say "Of course they didn't see it coming." The problem is applying this to modern business. That said, it does present a very interesting way of looking at disruptive technology changes, and how sometimes you just aren't in a position to do anything unless you scrap everything and go from there. Much of his case relies on the hard drive industry, which he has some good quantitative data to work with. At the same time, it is some of his other examples, with backhoes, and steel mills that can illustrate his concept to a greater extent. Part of this is because while computer componants is a fast moving field, it is these more lumbering machine parts area that scream "steady as it goes." Thus his thesis is stronger. It is almost too bad that the newest version is only updated and with a new chapter. Much of his computer hard drive case is only through 1996 - a lifetime ago in terms of technology changes. I would have been fascinated to see him revisit his data and see what it shows. Granted, that would be a complete rewrite of his book, but something that is so groundbreaking as this requires more thorough updating. Overall it is a very good and though provoking book that makes you think. Will it help you catch the next wave and survive the disruption? I am not sure I can say I took that away with me.
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