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The Pius War: Responses to the Critics of Pius XII
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The Pius War: Responses to the Critics of Pius XII [Format Kindle]

David G. Dalin , Joseph Bottum , John S. Conway , Rainer Decker , William Doino Jr , Kevin M. Doyle , Russell Hittinger , John Jay Hughes , Justus George Lawler , Michael Novak , Ronald Rychlak , Robert Louis Wilken

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Présentation de l'éditeur

In the brutal fight that has raged in recent years over the reputation of Pope Pius XII_leader of the Catholic Church during World War II, the Holocaust, and the early years of the Cold War_the task of defending the Pope has fallen primarily to reviewers. These reviewers formulated a brilliant response to the attack on Pius, but their work was scattered in various newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals_making it nearly impossible for the average reader to gauge the results. In The Pius War, Weekly Standard's Joseph Bottum has joined with Rabbi David G. Dalin to gather a representative and powerful sample of these reviews, deliberately chosen from a wide range of publications. Together with a team of professors, historians, and other experts, the reviewers conclusively investigate the claims attacking Pius XII. The Pius War, and a detailed annotated bibliography that follows, will prove to be a definitive tool for scholars and students_destined to become a major resource for anyone interested in questions of Catholicism, the Holocaust, and World War II.

Biographie de l'auteur

Joseph Bottum is Books & Arts editor of The Weekly Standard. David G. Dalin is Professor of History and Political Science at Ave Maria University and the author of numerous books on American Jewry.

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4 internautes sur 5 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Careful Research vs. Bias 18 juillet 2013
Par James E. Egolf - Publié sur
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
Joseph Bottum and Rabbi Dalin published a collection of essays and reviews which undermined the false notion that Pope Pius XII was "Hitler's Pope." The historians who wrote the essays in this book used careful research and historical understanding to vindicate Pope Pius XII's courageous efforts to rescue refugees including Jewish refugees during W.W. II. The essays and reviews were carefully written and help readers with further investigation.

Joseph Bottum's introduction framed the problem of the attempts to smear Pope Pius XII. The vast number of authenic sources are overwhelming on behalf of Pope Pius XII, and Pope Pius XII's detractors lose every confrontation. As noted in the introduction, Pope Pius XII was beyond apology given the vast amount of documents which showed how much Pope Pius XII did to save refugees including Jewish refugees.

Rabbi Dalin's contribution to this book is interesting. Susan Zucotti tried to claim there were no personal written records of Pope Pius XII's efforts to rescue Jews. However, Zucotti conveniently forgot that Pope Pius sent two handwritten letters with money to Bishop of Naples to help rescue and care for Jewish refugees. Pius' influence extended well beyond Rome and Italy. For example Jeno Levi, a Jewish historian,wrote a book with good documentation titled HUNGARIAN JEWRY AND THE PAPACY in which Levi showed sources from Catholic authorities in Eastern Europe that these authorities had clear instructions to help rescue Jewish refugees. Prior to Pope Pius XII's election to the Papacy, he gave 45 speeches, and 40 of these speeches condemned National Socialism (Nazism). Dalin reminded readers that the Papal announcement titled MIT BRENNEDER SORGE given by Pope Pius XI was actually written by the future Pope Pius XII. Dalin cited Pope Pius XII's response when threatened with deportation to a concentration camp. Pius was clear he was the least bit afraid. Another public source was the praise given to Pope Pius XII's Christmas message by the NEW YORK TIMES. Dalin further undermined Zucotti's defamation of Pope Pius XII when she omitted that Pope Pius XII hid Jewish refugees in the Vatican's Gondolfo residence. Other public sources on behalf of Pope Pius XII included praise by Rabbi Herzog of Jerusalem.

Robert Louis Wilken's essay was a severe criticism of James Carroll's smear of Pope Pius XII. For example, Carroll misquoted the Nicene Creed (325 AD)as though no one would notice. Carroll wrote as though HE were in charge of the Catholic Church. Carroll's bad logic extended to St. Anselm (1033-1109)with no historical basis whatsoever. Wilken chided Carroll for lack of scholarship whereby Carroll was unaware of authenic sources on behalf of Pius.

Ronald Rychalk's essay further exposed biased writing re Pope Pius XII. Susan Zucotti tried to make an issue about the supposed lack of written Papal orders re rescuing Jews. Pope Pius XII had to be careful that any written records fall into the hands of Italian or German authorities. Such exposure would undermine the Pope's clandestine efforts to rescue Jewish refugees in Italy and Europe. Zucotti omitted any clear reference to the meeting in 1940 in a Vatican basement to oust Hitler from power. Pope Pius XII knew the danger Hitler posed to the Catholic Church given the close distances. Zucotti failed to mention that Michael Tagliacozo, a Jewish scholar, was personally given safe haven by Pope Pius XII. Zucotti tried to claim that Catholics who rescued refugees including Jewish refugees acted independent of Pius XII. Yet, these Catholic rescuers including Catholic clergy, monks, nuns, etc. clearly stated they had direct orders from Pope Pius XII. Zucotti's response was that they did not mean what they said. Zucotti also forgot the high praise THE NEW YORK TIMES gave Pope Pius XII in an October 1944 edition.

The essay by Justice Lawler re Garry Willis' book PAPAL SIN was a devestating blow. For example, Willis did not know the difference between Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots who died in 1587) and Mary Tudor who was the English queen from 1553-1558. Lawler cited Karen Armstrong's gaffe when she claimed the Jerusalem only became central to Judaism in 586 BC when in fact Jerusalem was central to Judaism as early as c. 986 BC. Similar to other detractors of Pope Pius XII, Willis & co. omitted the document titled MIT BRENNEDER SORGE which was actually penned by the future Pope Pius XII. Lawler further cited Catholic condemnation of Charles Maurras'(1868-1953) Action Francaise for its anti-Semitism.

The monograph by Russel Huttinger was a severe indictment of David Kertzer's book titled THE POPES AGAINST THE JEWS. As Huttinger noted, Catholic voting pattenrs in Germany were against the Hitler regime. Huttinger showed the Kertzer's work was based on poor research and the book was more of a "witch hunt" than honest history. Again, Kertzer igonred the vast array of sources that he should have investigated.

The piece by Kevin Doyle is yet another refutation of false claims. Doyle dealt with a "Hidden Encyclical." In 1938, a Jesuit priest, Father John La Farge, showed the future Pope Pius XII a report attacking violent racism. Pius took the report seriously. At the same time the future Pope Pius XII, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli,helped to silence Father Caughlin's anti-Jewish broadcasts in the US. What is interesing is Doyle's remark that only Pope Pius XII showed concern for Jewish victims and refugees. NONE of the "allied" leaders expressed such concern.

John Jay Hughes wrote a scathing critism of Michael Phayer's book titled THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE HOLOCAUST: 1930-1965. When Phayer complained about converted Jews who attended early Mass, Hughes mentioned the early Masses were conducted to deceive authorities and to avoid humiliation. When Phayer tried to cite a telegram that indicted Pope Pius XII, Hughes clearly showed the the OSS proved the telegram to be a fabrication. Phayer tried to indict Catholics with "colletive guilt" when Pope Pius XII condemned such a notion.

The following essay was an editorial written by John S. Conway in 2001. The lame attack on Pius XII's 1943 Christmas message was not clear is undermined by the fact that both Hitler and Mussolini clearly understood it and were enraged. Conway was clear that Pope Pius XII and his clergy had to be so very careful, but they achieved so much in rescue operations. Conway showed an understanding of the conditons in Europe and in Rome whereby caution was necessay.

Rainer Decker's contribution further illustrated the conditions that Pope Pius XII faced. When criticism was made that Pius did not issue "flaming" condemnations, both German and Italian authorities were clear that such "flaming" condemnations would have invited worse reprisals. Pope Pius XII stated that his efforts were to save lives and not to gain popularity. Rainer made hash out of the stupid accusation that somehow the future Pope Pius XII was responsible for W.W.I. Eugenio Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII was Vatican Secretary of State when the Vatican made an agree with the Serbians c. 1914. How Pacelli's involvement re the start of W.W. I is beyond reason.

Michael Novak's addition is a lesson about fanaticism vs. honesty. Novak chastised Daniel Goldgangen's piece titled 'What Would Jesus Have Done?" As Novak noted Pope Pius XII had moral authority when Italian Fascists and Germans were heavily armed. On March 3, 1940,Pope Pius XII stunned the German commander Ribbontrop by reading in German the German unjust persecution in Poland. Goldhagen ignored the high praise on behalf of Pope Pius XII by Jewish dignataries such as Golda Meir, David Ben Gurion, Pinchas Lapide, etc. The question that Novak was who could have done better. The answer is a resounding NO ONE.

The book has a very comprehensive annotated bibliography which invites readers to read comprehensive books and sources. The essays and citations in this book are clear, and the book demonstrates to readers the vast number of books with bona fide sources on behalf of one of the few "unalloyed" heroes during European Dark Times.

James E. Egolf

July 18, 2013
2 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Typical Anti-Catholic Bigotry in the two previous reviews. 12 janvier 2013
Par Arthur Sippo - Publié sur
Format:Relié|Achat vérifié
The two previous reviews are typical of what Catholics have come to expect from ignorant bigots.

"bobby" treats us to some Monday morning quaterbacking as he complains about what Pope Pius XII did not do. Aside from the lies that he tells 'bobby' fails to recognize what Pope Pius XII DID do. When nobody else in Europe was doing anything, Pope Pius XII used his diplomatic corp to provide relief for persecuted people of all stripes in the occupied territories. He and his representatives had to be circumspect since they were working upder the watchful eyes of psycopathic murderers. They pick their battles judiciously. One may quibble with some of the choices they made but hindsight is always more critical than foresight and one must forgive the man on the front line for not being able to act dispassionately or recklessly. Pope Pius XII did what what he thought he could. Since no one else did anything (except for a paltry few such as Raoul Wallenberg) Pius was a hero and was always treated as such until the Communist inspired smear campaign of the early 1960's invented his alleged 'silence.' There is a difference between being silent and being careful and it is apparent that "bobby" is not mature enough to understand this.

Mr. Fuchs is just plain delusional. He does not like the modern turn that the Catholic Church has taken and so finds the book not "Catholic" enough. Or shall we say not reactionary enough?

Catholicism was founded by Our Lord 2000 yers ago and since then has muddled through all sorts of social, political, and moral upheavals. The sad case is that by merely surviving these vissicitudes, pundits like "bobby" will attack the Church for having adapted and survived while Mr. Fuchs will attack the Church for not remaining static! As Chesterton noted, the Catholic Churdch is attacked on all sides for dialectically opposed reasons. That is the indicator of her success. She remins "reeling but erect" while all around her trip over their own innovations or inertia.

This is a very excellent book that shows how asinine the critiques of The saintly Pope Pius XII really are. Read this book. Look up its resources. Judge for yourself.
9 internautes sur 40 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
2.0 étoiles sur 5 selective facts leads to predictable conclusions 6 mars 2010
Par Bobby - Publié sur
1. The Many Good Deeds of the Catholic Church

Initially it is important that discussion of Pope Pius not turn into an unwarranted attack on the Catholic Church. During the last half century, the Church has done a tremendous amount of good. If others considered the goal of feeding the hungry and clothing the poor a platitude, the Church helped. Many Catholic Churches have food kitchens on premises and organized campaigns for helping the poor, with Catholic Relief Services coordinating campaigns throughout the world. The Church was a forceful opponent of slavery in the United States at a time when others accepted it. One must separate discussion of Pius during the Holocaust from the Church itself. The historian can analyze individual responsibility without over-generalization, assigning culpability to Pius while noting Pope John Pau lI's heroism and involvement in the underground fighting Nazis. It may well be that attacks on the church have been excessive and unwarranted, but they choose something other than a moral catastrophe in which many Catholics participated to make their claim.

2. Overview

The case against Pius though looks compelling. He signed an agreement with the Nazi party which he never repudiated, oversaw the German Catholic Church as attacks on Jews turned from vandalism, harassment, loss of jobs to mprisonment, starvation, medical experiment, and extermination of men, women, and children like Anne Frank. His comments were vague and ineffective, and his regime saw the involvement of German Catholics (along with Lutherans) in the most horrible acts known to man. German Catholics along with Lutherans and other Christians arranged the burning of temples, the destruction of Jewish business, and the arrest of women and children --- as a start. They went on to arrange for the organization of extermination camps, and the developement of a modern, orderly system of death. As one German might have said- they talk about Ben Ladin and the 3,000 people killed on 9/11, we killed that number in one week. We pushed the Jews in, starved them, and then killed them, one week, I helped kill 3,431 and was chastized for being slow. For the average German Catholic, it was church on Sunday, during the week help capture Jewish children and women and others, put them in concentration camps, and arrange for their orderly extermination. Auchwitz bore a cross and had Christmas celebrations, along with its instruments of murder. So let's look at Pius's defense.

3. Failure to Help His Own Catholics

It is important to remember that many killed for being Jews were not Jews at all. Some had converted, had their children baptized, and took communion. Some like Edyth Stein would even become Saints in the Catholic Church. Pius let his own people down, allowing Hitler to determine who was Catholic (having coordinated authority under the Lateran accord). What would have happened had he said, these people you call Jews are members of our church, they are our brothers and sisters, if you hurt them you must hurt us, if you kill them, kill us. The chasm and chaos, and moral questions would have saved thousands, probably millions. Instead, most Catholics said about the new Catholics/ formerly Jews, take them, put them away, do what you want. While some helped most did not.

4. The Failure to examine the Horrors of Nazi Germany

While supporters talk of how well-docuumented the book is, in fact, it choose to ignore most of the horrors of the Nazi state. Rather than being a detailed and even-handed analysis, he attempts to scrape together vague pronouncements while ignoring his failure to speak out clearly and forcefully against the horrors of Nazism. The vague the better seemed to be the watchword, what she called prudence allowed Germans to remain Nazis and members of the Church. Where were the ex-communications for mass murder.

5. The First Argument- the Pope has No Power or Authority, and German Catholics Would not Have Listened to Him.

Pius XII's critics insist that if he had confronted Hitler directly - publicly excommunicating him and all who supported him - that German Catholics might have risen up in revolt. Rather than live in courage fighting in justice, their lives were consumed with the horrors of following the Nazi state with many to die anyway.

The Pope had millions of loyal Catholics who listened to him. One Papal visit to a city would bring not hundreds or even thousands, but hundreds of thousands of loyal followers. Christians followed his teaching regarding not only religious worship, but the most personal things in their lives, whether to remain married, engage in contraception, and how to raise their children. The idea that these Catholics would have ignored the Pope had he spoke forcefully is absurd. Instead, the widespread ignominy of starvation, murder, medical experiments- horrors vastly exceeding any Pagan country, only occurred because of the Pope's perceived submission to Nazi policies. How Pius visited but one synagogue or publicly embraced one Rabbi, the depth and scope of this tragedy would have been reduced.

The Pope might not have toppled Hitler but if he spoke out if he could have mitigated many of the horrors; German Catholics did not divorce or abort in part because of Church condemnation, they did kill Jews and then others because they saw no inconsistency between Nazi doctrine and the Church, particularly after their Pope had signed an agreement with the Nazi government. Does anyone think Nazis could have attacked Catholics the same way they did Jews. Well, fellow Nazis, you've done a good job at destroying Jews and burning their businesses but today we have a change. Horst, I need you to go down and burn the church your family belongs to, Helmut, go to the church down the road and break the statutes of Jesus and the Virgin Mary, and Dieter, get a group together to beat up and rape the nuns at the convent down the road.

6. Nazis and Christians saw no Inconsistency Between Christian Teachings, and Nazi teachings partly because of the Silence and Acquisesnce of German Religious Leaders

Today Christians today rightly condemn Nazi ideas as barbaric and contrary to Jesus's teachings of love, forgiveness, and morality. The central concept of forgiveness was obviously ignored in Nazi ideology, and the doctrine of Pope John Paul II that Jews do not live in perpetual infamy because of their sins had not seen its day. Constantine's vision of a Christian state seems similar to the Nazi ideal of a Juden-free society, an earlier Pope had suggested the armband to identify and segregate Jews, Jesus himself became so angry at Jewish moneylenders that he turned over their tables, and Jews were believed to have betrayed for monetary gain the same way Judas betrayed Jesus. Instead, many saw little inconsistency between Nazi and Christian thought, and most Christians in this Christian country became enthusiastic supporters. From 1933-1940, the worse the state treated the Jews the better everyone else's lives became. Only in the next 5 years, would these Nazis suffer a comparable fate, as German soldiers would freeze in Russia, German women in 1945 would be raped and murdered, and German children as young as 10 would be asked to fight and die in a war that was clearly over.

Leaders like John PaulII clarified Christian thoughs making it clear that punishing Jews is not Christian; Pius's failure to speak out clearly allowed the myth that one could be a Nazi Catholic to prevail under the end of the war, when even Christians reflected on the horrors, saw the naken starved bodies piled up in Auschwitz and realized what horrors had been committed at the concentration camps where Christsmas had been celebrated. By not striking a moral path and hiding any support for the Jews, Pius failed not only those who could have been saved but his German Catholic followers themselves who once they became used to tormenting and then murdering Jews, went on to kill others, and then sent 10 and 12 years old boys to the war front.

One critic writes, "Did Pope Pius XII help the Jews? Indeed he did. Nor can one claim he was silent. Rather one must speak of his "prudence." That vagueness and equivocation couched as prudence allowed German Catholic to participate in the holocaust and they did. The murder of 1,000,000 Jews in Poland, a country that was 90% Catholic, could not have occurred with the active opposition of the Church. He knew how to speak clearly; no Catholic could fail to know of his Church's opposition to abortion or divorce; but equivocation and vagueness could be construed as permission for those who sought ways to avoid confronting a brutal regime.

7. Modest Help for Italian Jews Cannot be Disputed

Did he help Italian Jews; undoubtedly so, and that dispells the notion that he was anti-semitic. But the many more who died much be laid at his legacy as his followers committed the most horrible acts known to man. The case of him as an atni-semite is weak and based upon a few supposed statement, that his followers committed horrible crimes is an indictment far more difficult to rebut.

8. As we Should Recognize the Heroic Acts of Many Catholics and those charity of so many in the Catholic Church, we cannot give Pius a Pass for doing too little too late.

Would those who opposed Hitler have suffered-undoubtedly so. But it is the role of a religious leader to suggest submission to horrible acts to save one's skin- do you turn your head to a brutal beating because you are worried about the consequences. What about morality. Many would surely have ignored church statements but others would have followed.

Ultimately the scope of suffering and death means we cannot excuse Pius's vagueness and equivocation. Some say Hitler or the government might have been angered if someone said not to exterminate Jews. Whether angry or not, the scope of death and depravity could not have been worse, and a religious leaders could have prompted more to look to their consciences.
2 internautes sur 29 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
1.0 étoiles sur 5 Mr. Bottum Prescient About His Own Anti-Catholic Anachronism 10 mai 2011
Par Peter P. Fuchs - Publié sur
It is rare in intellectual history that you get such an uruborotically symmetrical insight as Mr. Bottum's serpentine one that "anachronism is the only available tool for anti-Catholicism." He mentioned it about Pius XII but it comes around to bite his own bizarrely unconscious anti-Catholic sentiments in the whole idea of his new book, The Catholic Awakening. In the past one of the tropes of anti-Catholicism was that they wanted to secretly control all of culture. Of course, to any reasonable person the trope of any group secretly wanting to control everything is, to the smart person, instantly identifiable as a sham. And Catholics were certainly eager to point this out in the past. But enter the new breed of Catholic "intellectual" like Mr. Bottum, who have been raised on the mother's milk of historical fantasy and propaganda. And now he has forgotten his own words about "anachronism" and is going to publish his little manifesto about how with the "collapse" of Protestantism, which I have not really heard about, Catholics and Evangelicals are ready to take over as a "national church". And the pliability of Evangelicals to fold into Catholic understandings is a teensy problem, especially since many believe that Catholics are not going to be raptured anyways. But left as they say to keep to their "grape juice and crackers" in post- rapture nastiness. Therefore, frankly, that anyone could hold themselves out as offering anything in the intellectual realm of the United States and speak of a "national church" defies understanding. Even on purely religious terms. But only a pure shill could not see how the serpent has eaten his tail here, and now the tropes of Catholicism's ambitions, often conceived by anti-Catholics themselves are now turned on their head by this apparently very silly mind. Truth is stranger than fiction. And Mr Bottum's whole intellectual trajectory, as reflected in his forthcoming effort is apparently much stranger than fiction. That it is also ridiculous in light of current trends is almost a side issue.

One last matter is the guy's historical ignorance too. He avers that Pius XII was probably the most institutionally efficient and effective Pope ever. Could he remotely hold a candle to Innocent III?? But medieval history is good for this type of hack only for color, not close comparison.
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