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Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century [Anglais] [Broché]

P. W. Singer
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Présentation de l'éditeur

"riveting and comprehensive, encompassing every aspect of the rise of military robotics." --Financial Times

In Wired for War, P. W. Singer explores the great­est revolution in military affairs since the atom bomb: the dawn of robotic warfare. We are on the cusp of a massive shift in military technology that threatens to make real the stuff of I, Robot and The Terminator. Blending historical evidence with interviews of an amaz­ing cast of characters, Singer shows how technology is changing not just how wars are fought, but also the politics, economics, laws, and the ethics that surround war itself. Traveling from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan to modern-day "skunk works" in the midst of suburbia, Wired for War will tantalize a wide readership, from military buffs to policy wonks to gearheads.

Détails sur le produit

  • Broché: 512 pages
  • Editeur : Penguin Books; Édition : Reprint (29 décembre 2009)
  • Collection : PRESS NF PB
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ISBN-10: 0143116843
  • ISBN-13: 978-0143116844
  • Dimensions du produit: 22,6 x 15 x 3 cm
  • Moyenne des commentaires client : 5.0 étoiles sur 5  Voir tous les commentaires (1 commentaire client)
  • Classement des meilleures ventes d'Amazon: 3.280 en Livres anglais et étrangers (Voir les 100 premiers en Livres anglais et étrangers)
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Couverture | Copyright | Table des matières | Extrait | Index | Quatrième de couverture
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1 internautes sur 1 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 La Guerre du Futur. 28 juin 2012
Par jlmax
Format:Broché|Achat vérifié
Livre très intéressant traitant du sujet de l'utilisation de la robotique dans les conflits du futur. Futur pas si lointain, puisque les drones sont très largement employés dans les conflits actuels. Mais on n'y parle pas uniquement des drones, exosquelette...

Pour la petite info, les développeurs du Jeu Call Of Duty Black Ops 2 se sont inspirés de ce livre pour la trame de leur jeu.
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Amazon.com: 4.3 étoiles sur 5  108 commentaires
107 internautes sur 117 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 JohnHawley El Paso, Texas 10 mars 2009
Par John K. Hawley - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié|Achat vérifié
I work as an engineering psychologist in a U.S. Army organization that is in the forefront of R&D on military robotics and automated command and control systems. Hence, I read P.J. Sanger's Wired for War with considerable interest. I can relate to much of his discussion on an experiential basis. We routinely encounter and try to provide solutions for many of the problems Sanger discusses. As a point of interest, I was the technical lead on an Army effort looking at human performance contributors to the fratricides by the Patriot air defense missile system during the recent Gulf War mentioned on page 125. As is usually the case in a casual summary of complex events, Sanger's description of these events is superficially accurate, but there is a lot more to the story. Also, I've been told that his remark on page 197 about the radar on the DIVAD gun locking onto the exhaust fan of a port-a-potty is an urban legend. I've heard about this alleged incident, but I've never been able to find anyone in the Army air defense community who ever witnessed it personally. We work tests on that class of systems all the time, so we know the players.
Overall, I thought Sanger did a good job of describing the state of the art in robotic military systems and addressing the potential sociological and psychological impact of using these systems in current and future military operations. From my perspective, the central operational issue in using armed robotic systems in combat is balancing autonomy with effective human control (the focus of Sanger's Chapter 6.). In my view, he correctly refers to this topic as the "Issue-That-Must-Not-Be-Discussed." I was particularly struck by the difference between the attitude of those having the most on-the-ground experience with these systems (e.g. Robert Quinn's remark on page 124 that he can't even imagine how unmanned systems would "ever be able to autonomously fire their weapons.") and the almost casual attitude on this subject expressed by many of the decision makers we deal with daily. Their attitude is best summarized by the remark attributed to an unnamed former secretary of the army who responded "No" when asked if he could identify any challenges that the greater use of unmanned systems would bring to the military.
The reality associated with greater autonomy on the part of armed robotic systems is that there will likely be many more "oops moments" (Sanger's page 196) than are politically and operationally tolerable. Based on our assessment of the Patriot fratricides during the recent Gulf War, these incidents were an example of an oops moment on the part of an armed robotic system. If the past is any indicator of the future, such incidents will result in initial "surprise" and "shock" on the part of the leadership that these advanced systems behaved thusly, followed by the imposition of restrictive rules of engagements that effectively take the offending system out of the fight. Sanger is correct that we need a more realistic assessment by those in policy-making jobs of the potential problems associated with the use of armed, autonomous robotic systems in actual combat--but I'm not holding my breath waiting for this to happen.
Armed robotic systems will be fielded. They will be allowed to operate autonomously. Oops moments will occur. And unpleasant fallout and scapegoating will take place in the aftermath of such incidents. The issue of control in accord with human intent versus the illusion of control is complex and will not easily be solved. Software glitches aside, oops moments will mostly result from what Dave Woods of Ohio State University terms the "brittleness problem of automata:" An inability to satisfactorily handle unusual or ambiguous situations. I fear that the "Strong AI" necessary to satisfactorily address the brittleness problem will remain tantalizingly just over the technical horizon for some time to come.
40 internautes sur 43 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 A truly eye-opening book, superbly researched and written 2 février 2009
Par James Beswick - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié|Achat vérifié
I first heard the author talking on NPR about this topic, and both that interview and the first chapter of this book show his excitement and deep interest and understanding of this subject. For such a weighty hardback, it's remarkably hard to put down, and each section evolves intelligently from the last. I particularly enjoyed the references to modern culture, given that robotics has largely been a subject of science fiction in the last few decades rather than yielding anything practical in reality.

Well, at least so I thought - it turns out that over 12,000 robots are at war in Iraq and Afghanistan as we speak. The companies producing these machines were spurred by the very real necessities of dealing with guerrilla warfare, and avoiding the human toll associated with such difficult environments. Through a combination of human-controlled and artificially-intelligent hardware, these robots back up our soldiers and provide a super-human level of robustness and accuracy.

The author raises the complex moral questions associated with having machines killing people on the frontline, and the issues that arise when mistakes occur. There's also a fascinating discussion of stress disorders that remote pilots are suffering from - these men and women sit in offices in the US, controlling machines on the battleground far away, and return home for dinner every day after "a day's fighting".

It's also interesting to look at the design of some of the machines and their control interfaces, many of which look like Wall-E with a machine gun. Weapons companies have copied controllers from the Playstation and Xbox, taking advantage of a generation that is comfortable using these devices without extensive retraining. The distance between shooting people on Halo and making real life-or-death decisions in operating a military robot is almost absurdly non-existent.

I don't want to steal the book's thunder at all since this is one of the most gripping reads I've found in a while, and would highly recommend to everyone. While not a robotics book or a war book, it falls somewhere in the middle, and the topic is enthusiastically presented. The most chilling part is clearly that the science fiction of movies such as The Terminator is really not too far away, and we're on a cusp of a robotics revolution that will be as profound as the domination of the PC.
70 internautes sur 79 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
2.0 étoiles sur 5 A little too sensationalist, not enough real. 3 février 2011
Par jwman - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Format Kindle
Singer paints a picture of vastly capable robots and software that are fielded right now. As someone working in the robotics field and trying to provide autonomous behaviors for government applications, I see how far this is from reality. As is often the case, however, reality doesn't create much buzz or sell many books.

This book feeds the popular misconception that robots are smart and getting smarter. I have a brother-in-law that was asking me about my work and how I'd done some simple AI design for computer board games for fun a long time ago. He made the comment, "I bet all that is coming in handy in your current job". I had to tell him that no, creating strategy-based behaviors for Risk has almost zero relevance to modern robotics -- we're nowhere close to a strategic level of thinking. As an industry, we're still at the level of getting a robot to move from point A to point B consistently and without running into anything. The videos on YouTube posted by researchers show some incredible things, but research is almost always 10-15 years ahead of a solid, marketable solution (toy problems in the lab are comparatively easy, real-world complexity is HARD).

The reality is this: Most mobile robots in theater right now are glorified remote control cars, operated by soldiers less than a few hundred meters away via cameras mounted on the robots. Singer talks a great deal about the Foster-Miller Talon and iRobot Packbot, because they are far and away the most common and prominent platforms in theater. However, the examples of autonomy he gives never deal with those platforms. Why? Because they have almost no autonomy for the units in the field.

Autonomy for mobile robotics is HARD. Very hard. Singer glosses over this fact by talking about the "inevitable" Singularity that is supposed to happen somewhere around 2030. Basically, the premise is that robots are not smart because they can't think fast enough to process all of the data. This is wildly inaccurate. Mobile robots are not smart because humans have not managed to impart intelligent decision-making to them. It's not like the robotics field is bemoaning the slowness of today's processors as a reason for autonomy failings. "Oh it WOULD have worked if only I had 10x the computational power..."

Also the chapter on the "Singularity" bothered me because it shows a distinct lack of understanding of the current state of the art. Computers are not getting faster at the moment. Processor speeds have flat-lined at about 3.0 GHz for the past several years because any faster and heat dissipation becomes an intractable problem. Even the speed of super-computers is capping out for the same reasons (a little more complex -- heat dissipation is easier if processors are spread out, but higher speed requires physical closeness because of the time needed for current to travel. So high-speed computers need to be compact for speed, but spacious for heat dissipation...). New computers today are coming out with more cores, so computers technically have more raw computing power (though even this has near-term limitations that prevent us from the Singularity) but computers are awful at taking advantage of parallelism. Singer points out that our brains are massively parallel, and this is why we have an edge on computers. This is true, but even is we had a computer with the same amount of parallelism, we couldn't take advantage of it. Someone has to program the thing, and no algorithms exist that mimic the behavior of the human brain (contrary to the picture that tech bloggers paint). The fact of the matter is, we don't know how the human brains works. Singer's main argument here is pointing to the trend: compare what computers can do today with what they could do 30 years ago. The flaw is in assuming that the same trend will continue. Extrapolation is notoriously bad, even though it seems to have such predictive power. The reason for such growth can be explained by us tackling the "low-hanging fruit" as far as computers go, and we're fast approaching an era of more incremental improvement as the "easy" problems are solved. Futuristic technologies such as alternative processor architectures, Quantum computing, optical computing, etc. are nowhere near workable. But even if we had a full-fledged Quantum computer right now, we really wouldn't know what to do with it. The software algorithms don't exist for it, and many of those that do don't provide dramatic improvement over what we have today.

The most valuable part of the book (and the only reason it didn't get 1 star) was the first few chapters describing a historical view of robotics as an industry.
6 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Fascinating Read 25 mars 2009
Par Ralph A. Weisheit - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format:Relié|Achat vérifié
This is an eye-opening book but the title understates the breadth of its coverage. Yes, it is about the use of robots and automated systems in war but it goes far beyond that, discussing the many ways that computers and robots have entered our daily lives and the ways they are likely to do so in the future. The book is not just about robots and technology but also about human beings and how they related to their creations. Consequently, when the author makes the link between advances in robot design and science fiction it makes perfect sense, although it is an angle I hadn't previously considered. This book's strength is that it walks that fine line -- on the one hand it is carefully researched and documented but on the other is written in a highly readable style so that the reader is both informed and entertained. You know much more when you are finished and had fun in the process. Who could ask for more? I was drawn to this book having heard an interview with the author and having read his two previous books, "Corporate Warriors" and "Children at War." All three have a characteristic I particularly like in a nonfiction book -- the author is not dogmatic, raises concerns but doesn't cry that the sky is falling, doesn't shout at the reader, and doesn't offer easy solutions to complex problems. Instead, the author undertakes a reasoned and fair analysis of the issue, illustrating the complexities of what on the surface might seem a simple issue. As a result the author makes a more powerful statement than could ever be made by a sensationalist approach.Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, Updated Edition (Cornell Studies in Security Affairs); Children at War
24 internautes sur 31 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Making war impersonal 2 février 2009
Par Julie Neal - Publié sur Amazon.com
This frightening and funny book helped me understand the future of war in all its technological splendor. What was once the stuff of science fiction, such as machines thinking for themselves, is now our military's reality.

Unfortunately, as Isaac Asimov quotes in Wired for War: "The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom."

The military began using robots primarily to fill the "Three D" roles people were poor at: jobs that were Dull, Dirty or Dangerous. Unmanned systems "don't need to sleep, don't need to eat, and find monitoring empty desert sands as exciting as partying at the Playboy mansion." The use of unmanned systems has exploded, especially since the attacks of September 11. As one U.S. Navy researcher puts it: "The robot is our answer to the suicide bomber."

I heard an NPR interview with the author, and what struck me most was his description of how impersonal war has become. Almost like playing video games, people here in the states can launch missiles and cause all kinds of mayhem on battlefields overseas, untouched by all the messiness of being on site. Singer reveals the disdain combat troops sometimes have for these faraway operators, even though they are on the same side.

All sorts of pop culture references are woven through the book, including The Iron Giant, The Matrix, Night of the Living Dead, Predator, Star Wars, The Terminator, Total Recall, Wall-E and the Nintendo Wii. There is also a glossy-page insert of 32 black and white photographs.

The book poses provocative ethical questions about the new trend of one-step-removed killing. I'll be thinking about this one for a long time.

Here's the chapter list:

Author's Note: Why a Book on Robots and War?

Part One: The Change We Are Creating
1. Introduction: Scenes from a Robot War
2. Smart Bombs, Norma Jeane, and Defecating Ducks: A Short History of Robotics
3. Robotics for Dummies
4. To Infinity and Beyond: The Power of Exponential Trends
5. Coming Soon to a Battlefield Near You: The Next Wave of Warbots
6. Always in the Loop? The Arming and Autonomy of Robots
7. Robotic Gods: Our Machine Creators
8. What Inspires Them: Science Fiction's Impact on Science Reality
9. The Refuseniks: The Roboticists Who Just Say No

Part Two: What Change is Creating For Us
10. The Big Cebrowski and the Real RMA: Thinking About Revolutionary Techniques
11. "Advanced" Warfare: How We Might Fight With Robots
12. Robots That Don't Like Apple Pi: How the U.S. Could Lose the Unmanned Revolution
13. Open-Source Warfare: College Kids, Terrorists, and Other New Users of Robots at War
14. Losers and Luddites: The Changing Battlefields Robots Will Fight On and the New Electronic Sparks of War
15. The Psychology of Warbots
16. YouTube War: The Public and Its Unmanned Wars
17. Changing the Experience of War and the Warrior
18. Command and Control... Alt-Delete: New Technologies and Their Effect on Leadership
19. Who Let You in the War? Technology and the New Demographics of Conflict
20. Digitizing the Laws of War and Other Issues of (Un)Human Rights
21. A Robot Revolt? Talking About Robot Ethics
22. Conclusion: The Duality of Robots and Humans
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