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Beyond Economics and Ecology: The Radical Thought of Ivan Illich par [Illich, Ivan]
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Longueur : 240 pages Langue : Anglais

Descriptions du produit

Présentation de l'éditeur

Each of the four essays reprinted here was written for a specific occasion and together comprise only the smallest selection from a larger corpus questioning commodity and energy-intensive economies. The essays are presented thematically instead of chronologically to offer a better view of the sweep of Illich's argument. In the first two, “War against Subsistence” and “Shadow Work,” Illich reveals both the ruins on which the economy is built and the blindness of economics which cannot but fail to see it. The second two essays, “Energy and Equity” and “The Social Construction of Energy,” unearth the nineteenth century invention and subsequent consequences of 'energy' thought of as the unseen cause of all 'work' whether done by steam engines, humans, or trees. The science of ecology relies on this assumption and, as Illich explained, unwittingly fuels the addiction to energy. The close dance of energy consumption and economic growth is characteristic of not just industrially geared societies. After all, energy consumption steadily increases even in so-called post-industrial societies, fueling the fortunes of Google and Apple no less than Wal-Mart.

Biographie de l'auteur

Ivan Illich was born in Vienna to a Croatian father and Sephardic-Jewish mother, and had as native languages Italian, French and German. He later learnt Serbo-Croatian, the language of his grand-fathers, then Ancient Greek and Latin, as well as Spanish, Portuguese and Hindi. Thereafter, he studied histology and crystallography at the University of Florence (Italy), theology and philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian University in the Vatican (1942-1946) and medieval history in Salzburg In 1951 he was assigned as an assistant parish priest in New York City. He was then appointed in 1956, aged 30, vice-rector of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico. There Illich met Everett W. Reimer, and the two began to analyze their own function as "educational" leaders. In 1959, he traveled through-out South America by foot and in bus. In 1961 Illich founded the Centro Intercultural de Documentación (CIDOC, or International Documentation of Center) at Cuernavaca in Mexico, ostensibly a research centre offering language courses to missionaries from North America and voluntaries of John F. Kennedy's Alliance for Progress program. However, his intent was to counterfoil the Vatican's participation in the modern development of the so-called Third World. Illich looked askance at the liberal pity or conservative imperiousness that motivated the global rising tide of industrial development. He viewed such emissaries as a form of industrial hegemony, and as such, an act of war on subsistence. He sought to teach missionaries, dispatched by the Church to rather identify themselves as tourists and guests of the host country. After 10 years, the CIDOC's critical analysis of the institutional actions of the Church brought the CIDOC into conflict with the Vatican. Illich was called to Rome to be questioned, in part after a report from the CIA. In 1976, apparently concerned by the influx of formal academics and possible side-effects of its own institutionalization, Illich, with consent from its members, shut the center down. Several members subsequently continued language schools in Cuernavaca, some of which still exist. Illich himself resigned as a priest in the late 1960s. Illich was popular among leftist intellectuals in France in the 1970s but his influence declined after François Mitterrand's election in 1981; he was considered too pessimist at a time when the French Left took on governmental responsibilities. From the 1980s, Ivan Illich traveled extensively, mainly splitting his time between the United States, Mexico, and Germany. He held an appointment as Visiting Professor of Philosophy and of Science, Technology, and Society at Penn State, and also taught at the University of Bremen. During his later years, he suffered from a cancerous growth on his face that, in accordance with his critique of professionalized medicine, he treated with traditional methods. He regularly smoked opium to deal with the pain caused by this tumor. At an early stage, he consulted a doctor about having the tumor removed, but there was too great a chance of losing his ability to speak, he was told, so he lived with the tumor as best he could. My mortality, he called it.

Détails sur le produit

  • Format : Format Kindle
  • Taille du fichier : 242 KB
  • Nombre de pages de l'édition imprimée : 240 pages
  • Editeur : Marion Boyars (8 juillet 2013)
  • Vendu par : Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ASIN: B00E2585QK
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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur (beta) HASH(0x87b50d08) étoiles sur 5 3 commentaires
11 internautes sur 11 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x87b21c78) étoiles sur 5 Fascinating & Frustrating. 23 avril 2014
Par Dg. Batt - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
If we need an "Idiots Guide" to anything we need one on the thought of Ivan Illich, though probably no one would attempt it. The only thing wilder than his writing is how wildly he has been misunderstood, as far as I know all critics agree, the blame lies squarely with him. Perhaps he was partly taking cover in obscure language as academics & (mainly) pseudo-intellectuals often do, certainly he was grappling with radically new/"alien" ideas difficult to put into words.... &, thanks to the net, I also have a theory, after listening to his thick Austrian accent, tragically English was never really his first language.

So this book is worth reading just for the introduction by someone who uses language normally. The preface by Jerry Brown is also encouraging (& I think he is right to bring up the internet which has, in my opinion, a remarkable resemblance to Illich's 'learning webs' proposed in 'Deschooling Society' (1971) as an alternative to compulsory schooling even though he later apparently distanced himself from the idea that worthwhile learning necessarily needs special institutional help even of this kind, in typically startling contrary fashion (Deschooling Our Lives.1998)). This book assembles into a novel & meaningful sequence works from the 70's and 80's. Later work from Shadow Work comes first, basically about how most of our servitude to/propping up of, industrialism is unpaid today. This essay is more historical, & I think more depressive and defeatist than the sweeping heroic confidence of the 70's "Energy & Equity" which comes next, where he recommends planet earth adopts a drastically reduced speed limit in the name of equity, very much in keeping with the optimism of the times, not unlike Captain Kirk preaching to some planet (which always adopted his advice). The last essay, from 1983, does still have (as far as I'm aware his last) grandiose 60's style optomistic society-wide recommendations "let science & artificial intelligence manage production & distriibution of those few basic commodities we all need-&which there can be enough for all. And let most people live as much of their life as they chose, unplugged from work watts and bits" (121). Contrast this with the contemporary pessimistic & fatalism of the Transition movement " use fossil fuels now to try to prepare for a post industrial/petroleum world because most or us are too stupid or addicted to stop mindlessly squandering it as quickly and pointlessly as possible".

For me Illich has meant many things, perhaps most importantly, realistic and exhaustive (perhaps lateral and radical), cost/benefit analysis. We keep trying to get huge benefits with little cost (by trying to get machines, institutions, nature or other people to do things for us) and end up much worse off than when we started (real costs). Driving seems easier but really slows us down and monopolizes public space & erases the future.. with school we can sit back and let the school system educate our children but it keeps them away from learning practical autonomy & naturally learning subsistence by enthusiastically observing older people and imitating their work in play (the pre-industrial norm), "social" media seems to make socializing easier but it's a hot house for trivial narcissism... you may not agree but you get the idea, it's the type of analysis that counts. (I infer from Illich instead that an honest days work is the wisest, happiest and ultimately most practical & sustainable path. Rather than trying to use other people, organisms or inventions to do everything for us, work WITH them on a more or less equal footing, share tasks with them, don't try to turn them into slaves, parents or servants, expect to get more or less what you give, not to profit wildly).

Somewhere he said there is implicit doom in any disproportionate attempt to improve the human condition. This is where I hesitate with (what I'm inclined to see as )the grandiosity of his proposals. They seem like an attempt to make a massive improvement/benefit, transforming society, with comparatively little effort/ cost (simply writing a book) paradoxically as hubristic as the grandiose industries he rightly criticized.

I feel frustrated after reading Illich because the changes he suggests are too big for me to do anything about. I'd rather go along with the more attainable example of Wendell Berry (farmer, author, activist, heavily influenced by Illich)) getting a bit of land & trying to farm convivially, more humble, but doesn't annoy people like preaching & telling people what they need to do. Perhaps in some ways Illich, with his society wide recommendations is better left to politicians , like Brown, but I doubt even he'd attempt many of them at the moment.

To end on a positive note, one recent scientific development which I think makes Illich-esque ideals more feasible comes not from some innovation in alternative technology but from the science of self-control. Most industrial power is psychological, it seems easier, more reliably and intensely pleasurable to be addicted to industrial outputs than to do things for ourselves, no different to substance addiction. I've found the great strides in understanding self-control lead by experimental psychologist Roy Baumeister (see Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest Human Strength 2011 Baumeister & Tieney) remarkably useful in minding my own business in a convivial autonomous way, mainly getting off my intellectualizing butt, doing some physical work and enjoying it.
1 internautes sur 2 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x8846141c) étoiles sur 5 The world is so dysfunctional these days that Illich's ability ... 10 novembre 2014
Par jerry kendall - Publié sur
Format: Format Kindle Achat vérifié
The world is so dysfunctional these days that Illich's ability to turn ideas inside out, or more accurately to challenge the usually unstated first premises of defenders of the status quo, makes him very helpful. This said, I have to add that some of his views are archaic...
HASH(0x8820bc90) étoiles sur 5 Five Stars 7 février 2016
Par Sajed and Rosie Kamal - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
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