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Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime That Should Haunt America (Anglais) Relié – 10 mars 2014


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Amazon.com: HASH(0x9bb59a74) étoiles sur 5 5 commentaires
6 internautes sur 6 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x9ba8e678) étoiles sur 5 Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, or Something Else? 7 octobre 2015
Par Roger D. Launius - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché
There has been a debate over the last quarter century about the fate of Native Americans at the hands of Europeans who came to the American continent and displaced them. An extreme position is that the Europeans engaged in “genocide,” systematically seeking to wipe-them out. There were some instances in which this clearly took place—Small Pox infected blankets, various massacres, and other atrocities come to mind—but United States policy was far from such an approach.

No question, for nearly four centuries a technologically superior European civilization constantly pressed the native population either to conform to a new hegemony or to withdraw from it, conquering the various first peoples and destroying their population in the process. By the close of the nineteenth century the native population had dwindled, ravaged by war and disease and starvation, to the extent that some began to characterize it as a “vanishing race.” In 1900 the Native American population in the United States reached a nadir at 237,196, a seven-fold decline from what it had been estimated in 1492. But was it genocide?

Historian Gary Clayton Anderson does not believe so. Extermination was never the intention of Euro-Americans. Instead, he uses the term “ethnic cleasing” to characterize how Europeans and their descendants dealt with the native population. The objective of acquiring land and other resources from the native population motivated every aspect of Euro-American engagement with them. In that sense, according to Anderson, the “ethnic cleansing” term is more appropriate than genocide to describe what happened to Native Americans. The term, of course, gained fame in the Balkan wars of the 1990s and suggested the same concept of purging some groups from land wanted by other groups.

One may debate this characterization and there are other books that argue for Native American genocide. An argument about genocide may be found in Alex Alvarez, "Native America and the Question of Genocide" (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014) and Andrew Woolford, Jeff Benvenuto, and Alexander Laban Hinton, eds., "Colonial Genocide in Indigenous North America" (Duke University Press, 2014). The bulk of Anderson’s book is devoted to making his case for “ethnic cleansing,” followed by a set of case studies explicating it throughout American history.
1 internautes sur 1 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x9ba8e6cc) étoiles sur 5 An excellent account of this tragic series of events 18 février 2016
Par Amazon Customer - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
An excellent account of this tragic series of events. Whilst the thirteenth amendment to the US constitution is and will always be comendable, it is an astonishing enigma in the history of the US, how they treated the indigenous and rightful population of the land.
3 internautes sur 13 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x9ba8e9a8) étoiles sur 5 So, Dakota Daughter, two things: what'd you ... 16 juin 2015
Par Christian - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié
So, Dakota Daughter, two things: what'd you think of the book? 2) is it also your assertion that Americans can also not write histories of European nations? Just because somebody isn't from a particular ethnic group or nationality doesn't mean they have nothing to contribute.
0 internautes sur 8 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x9ba8eed0) étoiles sur 5 I could not find what I was looking for. ... 24 août 2015
Par James Golden - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
I could not find what I was looking for. I was seeking information on San Francisco California's legislative act that offered bounties for Native American's scraps.
11 internautes sur 41 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x9ba8e78c) étoiles sur 5 As a Native educator, I am frustrated and infuriated ... 5 janvier 2015
Par Native Teacher - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié
As a Native educator, I am frustrated and infuriated with the large number of non-Natives who continually write about our tribal histories, battles, literatures, etc., which is all part of the ongoing colonization of our people. We are members of sovereign nations with rich cultures, histories, literatures, battles and 522 years of ongoing appropriation of everything that non-Natives "discover" about us and then proceed to write ABOUT US! We are well educated both in our tribal knowledge, shared atrocities carried out as a way of eliminating all Native people and also have college degrees--from the bachelors to Ph.D., JD, MD, etc.

We do NOT need to continue to hear about our worlds/stories/histories, etc., primarily from non-Natives. It is rare that Native peoples from specific tribes that the writer is claiming expertise about are asked to be primary sources and or are given the chance by publishers to write and publish our own perspectives and experiences of family members/tribal members. I am NOT TALKING about the myriad of "as told to" ethnographies which contain serious mistakes and misinterpretations because they are written from a non-Native perspective. Sadly, some of our people and our students often believe that works written and published must be the truth. This ongoing aspect of "ethnic cleansing" continues with the stealing of our voices; in this case Cheyenne and Arapaho descendants of this horrific event Sand Creek Massacre. There are thousands of other losses and atrocities of the past and the present that continually lack enrolled tribal members' voices as the primary author. We have the right to tell our stories our way, from our perspectives and specific tribal views rather than constantly finding the ongoing colonial mentality and paternalistic attitudes that scream: " we are saving you! We are telling the truth that is missing from the history books. We are just helping to right the past misconceptions."

We need mentors (Native and non-Native) who have published to open doors for enrolled tribal members who have the support of their respective communities, to write and publish texts that reflect the spirituality, history, stories, literatures and other areas of our extensive ways of experience and understanding that are accurate and tribally-based. We don't need more "saviors" rescuing us because of past limitations and or errors in works published about tribal events. Those of us who are Native teachers of NA literatures, NA histories, tribal governments, NA arts, music, etc.,, those who live daily the ramifications and losses of ongoing genocidal practices of today, those who serve on tribal councils and governments, those who come from poverty levels rarely discussed by non-Natives--we are the authentic voices and do NOT need non-Native academics/people who mean well/ or any who believe that tribal voices aren't as powerful as theirs need to realize that we are the survivors of the US Government's ongoing actions to exterminate us. But through our humor and spirituality, our families and stories that are 100,000 years old--we are still here and have much to offer as authentic voices.

I am NOT singling out Gary Anderson. I am saying that indigenous peoples are constantly ignored when it comes to authentic voices--survivors with first-hand and generational experiences--and this perspective of seeing us a people of the past only increases low self-esteem and the highest rate of suicide of any American population.

As a Native educator, I am frustrated and infuriated with the large number of non-Natives who write about our tribal histories, battles, literatures, etc., which is all part of the ongoing colonization of our people. We are members of sovereign nations with rich cultures, histories, literatures, battles and 522 years of ongoing appropriation of everything that non-Natives "discover" about us and then proceed to write ABOUT US! We are well educated both in our tribal knowledge, shared atrocities carried out as a way of eliminating all Native people and also have college degrees--from the bachelor's to Ph.D., JD, MD, etc.

We do NOT need to continue to hear almost exclusively about our worlds/stories/histories, etc., from non-Natives. It is rare that Native peoples from specific tribes who have the “expertise” to write and publish from their authentic tribal voice(s) are sought out by publishers. Is it more expedient to listen to only one voice writing ABOUT tribal peoples? Is this part of the colonial attitude of “we have the right to write about whatever we want because no one yet has told the real story”?
The richness and authenticity as primary sources of our own tribal histories/experiences/cultures need to be mentored and supported by publishers to write and publish our own perspectives and experiences of family/tribal members. I am NOT TALKING about the myriad of "as told to" ethnographies which too often contain serious mistakes and misinterpretations because of limited understanding of contextualized experiences from the people being written about and published too often as the true expert of the story. Sadly, some of our people and our students often believe that works written and published must be the truth. This ongoing aspect of "ethnic cleansing" continues with the stealing of our voices; in this case Cheyenne and Arapaho descendants of this horrific event Sand Creek Massacre. There are thousands of other losses and atrocities of the past and the present that continually lack enrolled tribal members' voices as the primary author. We have the right to tell our stories our way, from our perspectives and specific tribal views rather than constantly finding the ongoing colonial mentality and paternalistic attitudes that scream: " we are saving you! We are telling the truth that is missing from the history books. We are just helping to right the past misconceptions."

We need mentors (Native and non-Native) who have published, to open doors for enrolled tribal members who have the support of their respective communities, to write and publish texts that reflect the spirituality, history, stories, literatures and other areas of our extensive ways of experience and understanding that are accurate and tribally-based. We don't need more "saviors" rescuing us because of past limitations and or errors in works published about tribal events without tribal voices. Or when some writers discover something about a tribe and or event impacting Native people and which has been given little coverage. The writer often feels s/he MUST write the truth—but fails to empower the very people who survived and whose descendants have passed down the stories through their tribal lenses and ways of knowing.

Those of us who are Native teachers of NA literatures, NA histories, tribal governments, NA arts, music, etc., those who live daily the ramifications and losses of ongoing genocidal practices, those who serve on tribal councils and governments, those who come from poverty levels rarely discussed by non-Natives--we are the authentic voices and do NOT need non-Native academics/people who mean well/ or any who believe that tribal voices aren't as powerful as theirs. Such Euro-centric “ideals” need to realize that we are the survivors of the US Government's ongoing programs and forced policies to exterminate us. But through our humor and spirituality, our families and stories that are 100,000 years old--we are still here and have much to offer as authentic voices.

I am NOT singling out Gary Anderson as a writer/academic/non-Native writer, or any category. Nor am I saying that non-Natives have no right to write about us. I am saying that indigenous peoples are constantly ignored when it comes to authentic voices--survivors with first-hand and generational experiences--and this perspective of seeing us a people of the past only increases low self-esteem and the highest rate of suicide of any American population.
There are many powerful Cheyenne and Arapaho leaders living and working to improve tribal conditions and eliminate the devastating impact of stereotypes. Susan Harjo (Cheyenne/Muskogee) has led the battle to eliminate stereotypes of Native people used by professional and local sports teams, has relatives who survived the Sand Creek Massacre, and who is often sought out nationally by tribes and heads of powerful companies, professional and national organizations and whose extensive background in educating the public about the impact of such ongoing and ignored racist actions have led to dramatic changes through awareness of the damages done to Native peoples, especially young people. She is a writer, lecturer, founder and leader of Morning Star Foundation and someone who is nationally known.
Dr. Henrietta Man (Cheyenne), a retired professor from Montana, has among her family survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre and other horrific battles that murdered members of her tribe, has written and spoken nationally about her people and how the past continues to repeat itself among the almost 600 tribes of today. Why not work with such nationally known experts but whose humility limits their self-proclaiming of expertise?
If you write about tribal peoples use respect and permission, and support the efforts of Native writers. Contact Wordcraft Circle for ways to empower Native voices.

Dakota Daughter/ Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate
Ph.D. in NA Literature
NA Educator of 40+ years and still learning
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