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The Language of Psychoanalysis (Anglais) Broché – 1 janvier 1988

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Sigmund Freud evolved his theories throughout his lifetime. This entailed many revisions and changes which he himself never tried to standardize rigidly into a definitive conceptual system. The need for some sort of a reliable guide which would spell out both the pattern of the evolution of Freud's thinking, as well as establish its inherent logic, was felt for a long time by both scholars and students of psychoanalysis. Drs. Laplanche and Pontalis of the Association Psychoanalytique de France succeeded admirably in providing a dictionary of Freud's concepts which is more than a compilation of mere definitions. After many years of creative and industrious research, they were able to give an authentic account of the evolution of each concept with pertinent supporting texts from Freud's own writing (in the Standard Edition translation), and thus have endowed us with an instrument for work and research which is characterized by its thoroughness, exactitude and lack of prejudice towards dogma. The Language of Psychoanalysis has already established itself as a classic and will long continue to be of invaluable use to both student and research-worker in psychoanalysis.

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Format: Format Kindle Achat vérifié
Le Vocabulaire de la Psychanalyse de Laplanche et Pontalis reste un des meilleurs livres de Sciences Humaines parus depuis la fin des années 60. C'est "La" référence pour tout Psy, le meilleur livre français de psychanalyse, référence mondiale pour tout praticien et chercheur en Sciences Humaines. AUSSI, IL EST ABERRANT ET INADMISSIBLE QU'ON NE PUISSE PAS AVOIR UNE VERSION FRANÇAISE NUMÉRIQUE !
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Amazon.com: HASH(0x937c7258) étoiles sur 5 7 commentaires
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HASH(0x935fc0f0) étoiles sur 5 An Absolute must have for any student of the mind. 13 novembre 1998
Par Un client - Publié sur Amazon.com
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This dictionary style work is absolutely vital for any student of psychoanalysis, amateur or aspiring professional. From the armchair to the doctor's office, this book makes the intricacies of psychoanalytic terminology accessible in everyday language. Got a big psych test coming up? Don't know where to begin on what "object-cathexis" or "secondary Narcissism" could possibly mean? What to woo that special someone with your knowledge of "jouissance"? Go to the source. If that makes little or no sense, come here. (So to speak.)
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HASH(0x9352d51c) étoiles sur 5 Jargon as a Vehicle for Self Understanding 17 avril 2015
Par Markus Youssef - Publié sur Amazon.com
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This dictionary is an English translation of a 1969 French dictionary which based many of its entries on German into English publications. I imagine that a lot got lost during the translations. For example, apparently the word soul in German got translated into English as 'mental apparatus.' Despite this, this dictionary is considered by many to be the best one available. The following is an overly simplified introduction to a few of the entries as I understand them. I'm reminded of what Robert Bly on a tape once told his audience, "About 30% of what I'm about to say will be incorrect. It'll be up to you to figure out which 30%."

Acting Out - Instead of trying to remember and "report" what happened so that feelings can be discharged, a person does things to keep himself distracted to avoid feelings and memories. Acting out is also a defense against mourning. It's very painful and hard to mourn alone so in reaction a person may tell himself to "get over it" (ie: repress feelings and memories deeper into the unconscious) and then possibly "conjure up some imaginary enemy" as an outlet or means to talk about his repressed/denied feelings. One way to correct this might be for a person to ask himself, just before feeling tempted to act out, "What am I not wanting to remember by doing this?" as a way to pause and allow "self-states to befriend and connect with each other."

Activity/Passivity - A pair of opposites found throughout all stages of human development and connected to each other. If a person dreams of being rescued (passive), it implies that there is a rescuer (active). The way a person was treated as a child (passive) may lead him in how he treats others (active). At midlife, men may strive to learn more about their feelings (passive) while women may seek to be more assertive (active). In psychic masochism, a person abandons (active) themselves (passive).

Actual Neurosis - Usually when a person is anxious or neurotic, it's somehow related to a very old conflict stored inside the person's psyche and referred to as "psycho neurosis" which can be put into symbolic form (words, art, etc) but sometimes a person may be anxious due to a current or recent traumatic event affecting the body's systems (PTSD) and is not related to what a child had to sacrifice in order to remain attached to a parent. The former is connected with the mind and therefore can be cured by talking while the later is mainly sourced in the body. Things can get complicated when the two intertwine leading to various psychosomatic issues.

Affect - "Emotional repercussions of an experience," "the subjective transposition of the quantity of instinctual energy", feelings. Unfelt feelings or affect can convert itself into certain patterns for a person (obsessiveness, melancholia, hysteria, etc). Thoughts and feelings can split away from each other. "'... unconscious ideas continue to exist after repression as actual structures in the system Ucs., whereas all that corresponds in that system to unconscious affects is a potential beginning which is prevented from developing'"pg 14 Those who "w-allow" in the past are often not doing it constructively (Tina Gilbertson). Allowing feelings to happen is not the same as "thought-wallowing." The idea is to not act out (in thoughts or actions) to give the psyche (soul) a chance to tell you how it feels and return home (embodiment).

Ambivalence - The coexistence of love and defense mechanisms in dealing with hurt, pain, unmet needs and trauma. Yes and No at the same time.

Anaclitic Depression - When a baby's attachment (bond, anaclisis, "to lean on") to his mother is broken within the first eight months of life. "The children become weepy, demanding ... the weeping often changes to wails. Weight loss sets in. There is an arrest of the developmental quotient. ... The children refuse contact. They lie prone in their cots most of the time ... Insomnia sets in ... motor retardation becomes generalized ... whimpering ... lethargy ... Provided the mother is restored to the baby, or an acceptable substitute is found, ... then the disturbance disappears with striking rapidity." pg 32

Anticathexis, Countercathexis - To become emotionally invested in your rationalizations because you're not yet ready to face your inner conflicts and inner truth. The defense mechanisms of Reaction Formation and Undoing are two examples of this.

Association - "... any bond between two or more psychical elements which, in series, form an associative chain." pg 41 The safer we feel with a person the more we can free associate or move along a thread/chain/train of thoughts into the heart of the matter.

Complex - "Organised group of ideas and memories of great affective force which are either partly or totally unconscious. Complexes are constituted on the basis of the interpersonal relationships of childhood history; they may serve to structure all levels of the psyche: emotions, attitudes, adapted behaviour." pg 72 It seems that the TV character Ally McBeal had a father complex. In two episodes we learn that her father was more emotionally intimate with her than he was with his wife. Men with the narcissistic pattern often apparently have a mother complex. Parents need to love their children but not get too "special" with them (ie: maintain certain basic boundaries).

Compromise-Formation - A person's quirks may be a compromise solution between his unconscious wishes and his defense mechanisms, super-ego (inner critic) and acquired false beliefs. "... neurotic symptoms 'are the outcome of a conflict [...]. The two forces which have fallen out meet once again in the symptom and are reconciled, as it were, by the compromise of the symptom that has been constructed. It is for that reason, too, that the symptom is so resistant: it is supported from both sides.'" pg 76

Compulsion to Repeat (Repetition Compulsion) - "... [a] process originating in the unconscious. As a result of its action, the subject deliberately places himself in distressing situations, thereby repeating an old experience, but he does not recall this prototype; on the contrary, he has the strong impression that the situation is fully determined by the circumstances of the moment. ... In a general way, the repressed seeks to 'return' in the present, whether in the form of dreams, symptoms or acting-out; ... What is the tendency towards repetition a function of? Is it a matter of attempts made by the ego, in a piecemeal fashion, to master and abreact excessive tensions?" pg 79 I think this topic can remind a person that something unfortunate really did happen in the past from which he is trying to recover.

Construction - If the timing is right, it can be very healing if a therapist is able to provide an accurate narrative for his client's life, one that includes not only his experiences but also his feelings, wishes and fantasies related to them. A construction is much longer than an interpretation. "We are made of stories."

Conversion - When repressed feelings transform themselves into something somatic.

Counter-Transference - When a person tries to provoke you to express their feelings for them (ie: engage in the defense mechanism of projective identification) and they succeed, your reaction in response is your counter-transference. A therapist can use his awareness of this to help him in formulating interpretations.

Defense Mechanism - When a person is not yet ready feel a feeling, an operation of the mind is employed to keep the feeling or anxiety at bay/repressed, including those that have been converted into bodily symptoms. Common mechanisms include: Denial of Psychic Reality, Reaction Formation, Passive-Aggressiveness, Rationalization, Distortion, Splitting, Regression, Identification with the Aggressor, Projection, Projective Identification, Controlling Others/Aggression, Psychic Masochism, Acting Out, Undoing,, Compartmentalization, Idealisation, Sublimation, Disassociation, Isolation, Intellectualisation, Cynicism, etc.

Depressive Position - "According to Melanie Klein, a modality of object-relations which is established after the paranoid position. The depressive position is reached around the fourth month of life and is gradually overcome in the course of the first year, though it may recur during childhood and can be reactivated in the adult, notable in states of mourning and depression. The depressive position is characterised as follows: from this point onwards the child is able to apprehend the mother as a whole object; the splitting of the object into a 'good' object and a 'bad' object is attenuated ... The 'good' and 'bad' qualities of the object are no longer kept radically distinct and attributed to objects that have undergone splitting ..."pg 114 Those who worship their mothers as all good are not necessarily coming from a paranoid position. Those who view their mothers as cold or hostile can still usually admit her positive side, even if it's only the recognition that she would have been a better mother had she not been burdened with her stuff.

Ego - In popular culture, ego means arrogance or false pride as in, "He's full of ego; His ego got in the way of his success; He's an ego-maniac, etc," but in traditional psychology, a person's ego is what makes him conscious and aware of himself. Therapists often say that before they explore early memories and traumas, they first help the person to build up, or repair, their ego as preparation for the mourning/working-through process. If a person's ego isn't strong enough, they won't be able mourn.

Ego-Ideal - A fantasy of perfection created to measure up to what it believes will heal his parents in his mind.

Ego-Syntonic - When your ego believes that what you're doing is healthy.

Electra Complex - When a daughter is overly fused with her mother and hasn't been allowed to separate and individuate from her.

Eros - All of our wishes and desires to love and be loved, create, have meaning,, make contributions, take pleasure in what adds value to others, etc. The term libido is often used in this context.

Failure Neurosis (or Syndrome) - An inability to tolerate satisfaction, success, good fortune due to an unresolved unconscious dynamic; "Artisans of their own misfortune;" Psychic masochism.

Family Neurosis - A dysfunctional family constellation.

Family Romance - An escape fantasy for living in a dysfunctional family. "... the child imagines that he was not born of his real parents, but rather of noble ones; or that his father was noble and - to explain this - that his mother has had secret love affairs; or again, that while he is legitimate his brothers and sisters are bastards." pg 160

Fate Neurosis - "This term designates a type of life-pattern characterised by the periodic recurrence of identical chains of - generally unfortunate - events. The subject appears to be the victim of these chain of events, as though they were willed by some external fate, but psycho-analysis teaches that their origin is to be found in the unconscious and, more specifically, in the compulsion to repeat. ... the subject has no access to an unconscious wish ... In character neurosis, by contrast, it the compulsive repetition of defense mechanisms and behaviour pattern which is responsible for, and reveals itself in, the rigid maintenance of a particular form (character-trait)." pg 162

Fixation - When libido firmly attaches itself onto a person or an imago connected to developmental arrest and/or trauma. Often regressive in nature, obtaining an archaic mode of satisfaction.

Flight into Illness - "... the subject looks to neurosis as a mean of escaping from his psychical conflicts" pg 165 Sometimes referred to as "Flight into psychosis", "Flight into neurotic illness", "Gain from Illness", "Secondary Gain." Romantic comedies often show a character getting ill just when trying to enter into an intimate love relationship since love often brings up our inner fears and conflicts.

Free Association - Giving voice to what's on one's mind, freely and without fear of being judged or criticized, in order to allow contents from the unconscious to enter consciousness.

Hysteria - When a repressed inner conflict expresses itself in the form of an "emotional crises accompanied by theatricality." pg 194

Id - Life force, instinctual energy

Identification - "Psychological process whereby the subject assimilates an aspect, property or attribute of the other and is transformed, wholly or partially, after the model the other provides. It is by means of a series of identifications that the personality is constituted and specified" pg 205

Identification with the Aggressor - "... faced with an external threat ... the subject identifies with his aggressor. He may do so either by appropriating the aggression itself, or else by physical or moral emulation of the aggressor, or again by adopting particular symbols of power by which the aggressor is designated ... " pg 208 With those with the bully pattern "the behaviour we observe is the outcome of a reversal of roles: the aggressed turns aggressor." pg 209

Imago - "Unconscious prototypical figure which orients that subject's way of apprehending others; it is built up on the basis of the first and phantasied relationships within the family environment ... It should be looked upon ... as an acquired imaginary set rather than as an image: as a stereotype through which, as it were, the subject views the other person." pg 211

Intellectualisation - Making rationalisations and seemingly reasonable explanations (ie: long lies) as a way to negate feelings as apposed to searching for understanding and truth. A defense mechanism. Pre-planned speech. Image driven.

Internalisation - "... process whereby intersubjective relations are transformed into intrasubjective ones ... the same thing as introjection, namely the transposition in phantasy of an external 'good' or 'bad' object, or of a whole or part-object, to the 'inside'of the subject." pg 226

Interpretation - "Procedure which, by means of analytic investigation, brings out the latent meaning in what the subject says and does. Interpretation reveals the modes of the defensive conflict and its ultimate aim is to identify the wish that is expressed by every product of the unconscious." pg 227

Masochism (Moral) - "The subject, as a result of an unconscious sense of guilt, seeks out the position of victim ... " pg 244 Edmund Bergler has written several books on this topic referring to it as "psychic masochism."

Negative Therapeutic Reaction - "Phenomenon met with in some courses of psycho-analytic treatment as a type of resistance to cure that is particularly hard to overcome: at every point where an advance might be expected ... the patient gets worse instead, as though certain subjects preferred suffering to being cured ...an unconscious sense of guilt inherent in certain masochistic structures." pg 263

Neutrality - The analyst is not to counsel or give advice, nor identify with their projections ("Interpretate, don't collude.").

Paranoia - "Chronic psychosis characterised by more or less systematised delusion ... [including] delusions of persecution ... delusional jealousy and delusions of grandeur." pg 296 Some authors say that it's a category all on its own while others say it's a subcategory of schizophrenia while others say there's an overlap between the two.

Paranoid Position - "According to Melanie Klein, a mode of object-relations which is specific to the first four months of life ... the object is partial (chiefly the mother's breast) and split into two: the 'good' and the 'bad' object; the predominant mental processes are introjection and projection; anxiety, which is intense, is of a persecutory type (destruction by the 'bad' object). ... The good object is 'idealized': it is capable of providing 'unlimited, immediate and everlasting gratification' ..." pg 289

Phantasy (or Fantasy) - "Imaginary scene in which the subject is a protagonist, representing the fulfillment of a wish (in the last analysis, an unconscious wish) ... pg 314

Projection - "... operation whereby qualities, feelings, wishes, or even 'objects', which the subject refuses to recognize or rejects in himself, are expelled from the self and located in another person or thing. ... The subject shows by his attitude that he has identified one person with another: it may be said in such a case that he is 'projecting' the image of his father, for example, on to his employer. ... the racist, for instance, projects his own faults and unacknowledged inclinations on to the group he reviles. ...

Projective Identification - First written about in a book about abused children, who in desperation attempted to stop the abuse by trying to control the mother. "The mechanism, which is closely associated with the paranoid-schizoid position, consists in the phantasied projection of split-off part of the subject's own self -or even his whole self (not just partial bad objects) - into the interior of the mother's body, so as to injure and control the mother from within." pg 356

Rationalisation - "Procedure whereby the subject attempts to present an explanation that is either logically consistent or ethically acceptable ... whose true motives are not perceived." pg 375 When what a person is omitting is closer to the heart of the matter than what he is saying. "In the case of character traits or behaviour well integrated into the ego it is more difficult to make the subject aware of the part played [(camouflage psychic conflict)] by [the defense mechanism} of rationalisation."pg 376

Reaction Formation - When you are scared to express a certain feeling or thought, you express the opposite. "Psychological attitude or habitus diametrically opposed to a repressed wish, and constituted as a reaction against it (e.g. bashfulness countering exhibitionist tendencies). In economic terms, reaction-formation is the countercathexis of a conscious element; equal in strength to the unconscious cathexis, it works in the contrary direction. Reaction-formations may be highly localised, manifesting themselves in specific behaviour, or they may be generalised to the point of forming character-traits more or less integrated into the overall personality." pg 376

Regression - Under stress, a part of us regresses or reverts back to earlier and established childhood ways of thinking and relating.

Repression - Some have referred to this as "the mother of all defense mechanisms" since all defense mechanisms, in one way or another are about keeping material, which a person is not yet ready to face, buried.

Resistance - Apparently there's still some resistance to the idea that "the ego is not master in his own house," that the unconscious exists and exerts a major influence over a person's life. It's a "blow to our narcissism" that our understanding of ourselves is similar to only the tip of an iceberg over water. Some have suggested that this resistance exists because we are still trying to get used to the idea that the Earth (and by projection us) is not the centre of the universe and that humans are not the only mammals with feelings.

Sublimation - A socially acceptable defense mechanism. When a person channels his life force, related to inner conflicts, into projects that, although may add value to others, is primarily an outlet for his emotions. A debate exists over this. Are all projects sublimation?

Undoing - A form of magical thinking "whereby the subject makes an attempt to cause past thoughts, words, gestures or actions not to have occurred; to this end he makes use of thought or behaviour having the opposite meaning." A person does something he later regrets and then either does it again or makes some token gesture thinking that it will cancel out the feelings connected to the first time. The example in the dictionary is about a man who buys a something, regrets the purchase, and then goes out to buy the same thing again in an attempt to magically undo the first purchases. Often seen with those who have OCD.

Work of Mourning - Allowing memories and feelings connected to a loss (any type) to be expressed. In pathological mourning "the subject holds himself responsible for the death that has occurred, denies it, believes that he is influenced or possessed by the dead person, or that he is himself a victim of the illness that has caused the death ... with melancholia ... the ego identifies with the lost object." pg 486

Working Through - The second phase of healing. After the Testing phase, a person works through his "abandonment depression" before reaching the Separation and Individuation phase.

This dictionary very rarely gives examples and is mainly focused on how terms have been grappled with over time. A mixture of tedious and enlightening information.

I remember hearing Robert Bly say on a tape once, "Both Jung and Freud were momma's boys and that has thrown psychology off from the very beginning." But he also said in reference to the availability of a wealth of information on the soul or "mental apparatus" that, "If you don't read a least of little bit of psychology every day, you're coo-coo."
3 internautes sur 4 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
HASH(0x93b3ae04) étoiles sur 5 Essential psychoanalytic reference text 27 octobre 2007
Par psychomama - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Broché
Excellent research and study aid. Each item is punctiliously cross-referenced to its origin in Freud's writings and within each definition the different terms used are cross-referenced in a format that is easy to follow without being intrusive to the eye. Despite its French authors, this work is not Lacanian, thus it lacks definitions for some psychoanalytic terms (e.g. signifier) which contemporary analysts must seek elsewhere, for instance in Dylan Evans' book. But its relevance to developing psychoanalytic research and practice remains incontrovertible to all Freudians, post- or not.
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HASH(0x93836540) étoiles sur 5 great reference book 16 septembre 2013
Par jrp - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié Achat vérifié
This book has useful key terms and explanations for any student of psychoanalysis or interested in psychoanalytic criticism. I would highly recommend it.
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HASH(0x93836804) étoiles sur 5 a comprehensive overview for any reader 9 mai 2009
Par R.U. Kidding - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié
This book is really useful if you are having trouble interpreting the often obscure and cryptic texts by Freud, Lacan, Klein, Laplanche, etc...
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