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The Myth of Ownership: Taxes and Justice par [Murphy, Liam, Nagel, Thomas]
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Longueur : 238 pages Word Wise: Activé Langue : Anglais

Descriptions du produit

Revue de presse

"Murphy and Nagel claim that pretax income is a myth, and, as such, has no moral significance.... The Myth of Ownership significantly increases the sophistication of the discussion [fairness in taxation]." --Michigan Law Review

"The thoughts in this book deserve examination, especially the views of Nagel and Murphy on the self-interest each taxpayer reasonably has in the social justice purchased by hard-earned money....[They] offer ideas that would improve the national debate."--David Cay Johnston,New York Times Book Review

"The Myth of Ownership...should be read by all who wish to enter the discussion regarding taxes."--William Michell Law Review

"The authors very effectively argue that the taxation, such as the benefit and ability-to-pay principles, fall victim to a fatal defect. Justice in taxation cannot be assessed apart from a general theory of property rights."--The Mises Review

"The best book by far on the political morality of taxation. In a clear and compelling analysis, Murphy and Nagel expose the mistake of thinking that individuals own their pretax income and they examine the social benefits of justifiable tax policy. Taking this book's message to heart would transform contemporary democratic politics."--Amy Gutmann, Provost and Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Politics, Princeton University

"This magnificent contribution from the distinguished philosophers Liam Murphy and Thomas Nagel reminds us that fundamental issues of justice lie at the core of often mundane debates about taxation. The provocative thesis of The Myth of Ownership that the tax system helps create, rather than conforms to, the overall system of property rights has profound policy implications. I highly recommend this engaging book and the rethinking of first principles it inspires to anyone interested in taxation and the role of government in society and the economy."--Joel Slemrod, Paul W. McCracken Collegiate Professor of Business Economics and Public Policy, University of Michigan

Présentation de l'éditeur

In a capitalist economy, taxes are the most important instrument by which the political system puts into practice a conception of economic and distributive justice. Taxes arouse strong passions, fueled not only by conflicts of economic self-interest, but by conflicting ideas of fairness. Taking as a guiding principle the conventional nature of private property, Murphy and Nagel show how taxes can only be evaluated as part of the overall system of property rights that they help to create. Justice or injustice in taxation, they argue, can only mean justice or injustice in the system of property rights and entitlements that result from a particular regime. Taking up ethical issues about individual liberty, interpersonal obligation, and both collective and personal responsibility, Murphy and Nagel force us to reconsider how our tax policy shapes our system of property rights.

Détails sur le produit

  • Format : Format Kindle
  • Taille du fichier : 2130 KB
  • Nombre de pages de l'édition imprimée : 240 pages
  • Editeur : Oxford University Press (11 avril 2002)
  • Vendu par : Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Langue : Anglais
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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur (beta) 3.5 étoiles sur 5 11 commentaires
35 internautes sur 39 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 I disagree with the argument, but the book is fairly solid 15 mars 2006
Par S. McCarthy - Publié sur
Format: Broché
Nagel and Murphy have missed an important point in not recognizing that although property rights are conventional, Nozick gives a very convinving ontology of property rights that is compatible with the Lockean tradition. In other words, though property rights as they exist are conventional, they arise from the state of nature in a manner such that government enforcement is not an inherent quality of them. Hence, in arguing that individuals do not wholly own the fruits of their labor due to the fact that the possession of such fruits is enabled by government enforcement of property rights, Nagel and Murphy are clearly missing why Nozick comes to hold the entitlement view of property.

With all of this said, this is a pretty good book overall. It is one thing to disagree with the authors and their argument, it's another to outrightly discredit each of them as individuals. Previous reviewers that oversimplify what Murphy and Nagel are doing here seemingly either do not understand the complexities of these issues, or do not have the intellectual honesty and/or curiosity to consider something that is prima facie opposed to their opinion. To question the academic credibility of the authors is simply ignorant, as both are highly reputable and regarded, and to assert that the authors "seem unaware of the Lockean tradition" is dubious, since Locke is clearly mentioned and farily represented in the book.
40 internautes sur 49 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Is Vertical Equity Really Dead? 16 août 2002
Par Russell W. Kessler - Publié sur
Format: Relié
The main thrust of Murphy & Nagel's claim is that pre-tax income cannot be a moral base for the measurement of the fairness of taxation. Their claim is that the ultimate social justice of the entire economic system is the only proper end, of which taxation is a part, thus taxation and the equity thereof cannot be measured in a vaccum, rather only against the resulting end.
It would seem however that Murphy & Nagel make their claim too strong in that they claim that pre-tax income (and vertical equity) cannot be utilized as even a factor in the measurement. Unfortunately for their theory, pre-tax income is a fact of the market economy and the positive law surrounding such economy. Thus, if we are to ignore everyone's pre-tax income, the only possible result is that all after-tax income must come out equal. To claim any other result must come through the application of a judgment as to vertical equity.
It would seem that their claim would be far more sound if it were limited to saying that vertical equity may only be utilized as a means to achievement of the end of social justice. Murphy & Nagel, however, want to make their claim stronger so as to be able to discount the tax equity argument entirely. Ultimately such an argument must fail due to the reality of pre-tax income, but it is still a very interesting and well written book.
12 internautes sur 13 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Very Enlightening To This Economist and Attorney 19 novembre 2013
Par Publius - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
I found Murphy and Nagel’s discussion of libertarian views on taxes fascinating. It has become common practice for anti-government policymakers to define any form of tax increases or government economic action as tampering with the “natural” order of things. But what I found the most fascinating about the authors’ criticism of libertarianism is the ideology’s implication that market is a natural arrangement that exists independent of government. But I agreed with the authors’ explanation that what makes our market exist as a place for the exchange of goods and services is a government and legal system that protects private property and maintains an elaborate system of defining the terms of relationship among the market actors. In addition, what the authors do not directly mention are all the other benefits derived from government that significantly contribute to wealth creation, such as roads, energy resources and fundamental infrastructure in telecommunications and transportation. What many seem to take for granted is that such a system costs money, and taxes are critical to satisfying that requirement. In other words, while ardent libertarians would argue that any form of government tax or regulation would move us away from some purist notion of a free market, such a market cannot exist outside of a system of laws that would define it and a government that would maintain it.

As both an economist and an attorney, I found this book quite compelling and enlightening. I highly recommend it.
8 internautes sur 12 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Wonderful Book - The strongest case for a society built by all of us that you're likely to find. 22 septembre 2013
Par Michel - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
"A self made man is just not admitting where he got all the parts"

This quote by John Kenneth Galbraith is one of the most succinct and important in regards to the myth of the heroic producer who made every dime of his money entirely on his own, and owes nothing to the society that made his wealth possible.

Do not listen to the reviews that claim the book argues that all that we produce "belongs to the government," along with a parade of other strawmen arguments trotted out by those dissatisfied by its thesis. It does not claim that. It does not make that argument. It's claim is that we do own the fruits of our labor to the extent that we contributed to the creation and production of that production - but that, to some degree, we own back into the society that created the infrastructure that allowed that production to be possible.
The book is the most informative I have encountered in regards to articulating the importance of a system of public goods for meeting the needs of society as a whole. In reality, without some method of collective enforcement of the rights we hold so dear, you wouldn't' have the privilege of arguing on the internet from the comfort of your own own. It is the greatest book I have seen pointing out the flawed and unrealistic religion that is Libertarianism.

This book points out why the alleviation of poverty helps everyone. Why you benefit in a world where the poor are taken care of. Why social goods created by collectively pooled resources allow us all to enjoy more wealth. Why courts, laws, patents, and enforcement make it possible to produce to begin with. Why education is the wellspring of all the progress we hold so dear from the onset.

Until someone can produce for me a person who got rich in a Capitalistic society with no infrastructure, property rights, patents, educated workers, national defense, roads, sewers, water, airports, and countless other public goods woven into the very basic fabric of our wealth creating society, the charges levied against this book our invalid. Someone flippantly said "This book just says without Uncle Sam, you

Please, do not listen to the Randists and Tea Party Right wing nuts who denigrate the book. Read it and come to your own conclusion. Not everything is captured by market signals. The greatest and wealthiest countries learned long ago, that taxes are a way for us to do big, hard things that make us all better off, which cannot be achieved by any one person alone.
It's the Libertarians who want something for nothing. They want to enjoy a society and wealth made possible by billions of investments in Infrastructure, for free. They are the ones wanting welfare. Not the other way around. We do own the fruits of our own work. But we owe some of that, to the framework that made that possible so that wealth creation can remain possible. This book is a beautiful articulation of that fact.

Humans have traded things back and forth for their own benefit since our species has been able to walk upright. No one disagrees with this. A world with no government would be possible - and has indeed existed before. Some would succeed brilliantly in such an anarchistic world. But the price for not being at the top would be far crueler, far harsher than we have today. It would amount to a lottery where he very best and strongest would enjoy a possibly very glitzy and dominant position (To the extent that modern technology would even allow that - basic research, and technology from public funding has contributed to a vast degree of the advancement we have today), but the rest would languish in a terrible, brutish and uncertain world with no way to keep the strong from crushing the under the them. Libertarians and tea partiers recognize only the monopoly of public power. For some reason, the idea of private power as a coercive force is utterly invisible to them.
5.0 étoiles sur 5 What goes up must come down. 25 août 2016
Par gary morrison - Publié sur
Format: Broché
So, it appears the intellectual hot air balloon that has held the economics of human misery aloft for centuries is finally loosing altitude.
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