The New Unconscious (Anglais) Broché – 24 août 2006
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Description du produit
Revue de presse
Our understanding of the mind is changing fast. The study of cognitive, introspectable processes, which dominated psychology when I was a student, explored the tip of an iceberg of mental activity. Research in social cognition now uses subtle but rigorous behavioral indices of involuntary, unconscious, automatic processes to infer a new view of the mind in which emotions and goals are as important as thinking and knowledge. But this is not the Freudian unconscious. The methods are those of scientific psychology. This book is a rich compendium of recent findings exploring the structure of implicit mental activity, and incidentally challenging conventional views of free will, the self, and the control of actions. --Anne Treisman, James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Psychology, Princeton University
The title of this book is surprising, but fully justified. This is the book you should read if you want to understand the remarkable progress recently achieved in the empirical study of unconscious mental processes--cognitive, emotional and motivational--and in understanding their correlates in the structure and function of the brain. --Daniel Kahneman, Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology, Princeton University and Professor of Public Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School
This book picks up where its predecessor, Unintended Thought, left off. The chapters, which are written by some of psychology's most distinguished researchers, provide different and exciting perspectives on the topic of unconscious information processing in social life. This is a first-rate collection of authors and ideas. --Daniel Gilbert, Professor of Psychology, Harvard University
Unintended Thought, the predecessor to this volume, did what few edited volumes do--it shaped an entire field of study. The present volume, The New Unconscious, reveals a more mature discipline--the questions remain just as exciting and challenging, but the evidence moves us perceptibly farther in our understanding of the invisible mind. This collection is the definitive compendium of what we know about the unconscious today. Each chapter made me want to stop doing what I do, and join the authors in their endeavor! --Mahzarin R. Banaji, Richard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics, Department of Psychology, Harvard University and Carol K. Pforzheimer Professor, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study
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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur Amazon.com
But academic psychology was never quite so sure. Freud, Jung, Adler and the others had constructed an untestable metatheory that began to fall off the radar of most academic psychologists. Yet psychotherapists continued to use techniques informed by concepts of unconscious motivations, and some empirical research confirmed the value of the approach. Though the value of some of the therapies did little to confirm the existence of unconscious processes.
The problem of the existence of the unconscious was compounded by the problems of definitions: some spoke of a "personal" unconscious; Jung and his followers introduced the notion of a "collective" unconscious, but then many writers began to use the words "unconscious" and "subconscious' interchangeably. That obfuscation was compounded by many popular writers who expanded the concept of the "subconscious" to include biological functions operating below the level of conscious awareness. So then everything from the beating of the heart to the metabolic fires of the mitochondria were all subsumed under the term "subconscious." The problem with any overly broad definition is that it ceases to be a useful descriptor that we can use to make predictions to advance our understanding.
Yet another attempt to clarify non-conscious processes was to introduce the notion of a "preconscious" to describe some of the psychological processes that occur before or during conscious events, to differentiate them from the activities of the autonomic nervous systems and the interactions of the brain and nervous system with the immune and endocrine systems. One influential model is to differentiate three major "levels:"
1. The true unconscious, which is so far below awareness that it can never be directly known by introspection, but only inferred
2. The preconscious that contains latent procedural knowledge
3. The subconscious level of awareness, which includes hypnotic and dissociative states
In the last few years cognitive psychologists have re-entered the arena, and created models and methods to try to make sense of unconscious processes. This is not some dry academic exercise, but an enterprise that reaches to the heart of mind/body interactions ad may provide explanation for some of the most baffling of human actions and reactions.
This excellent book is divided into an introduction, followed by five sections and nineteen chapters:
Introduction: Becoming Aware of the New Unconscious: James S. Uleman
Section 1: Fundamental Questions
1. Who is the Controller of Controlled Processes?: Daniel M. Wegner
2. Bypassing the Will: Towards Demystifying the Nonconscious Control of Social Behavior: John A. Bargh
Section 2: Basic Mechanisms
3. The Interaction of Emotion and Cognition: The Relation Between the Human Amygdala and Cognitive Awareness: Elizabeth A. Phelps
4. The power of the subliminal: On Subliminal Persuasion and Other Potential Applications: Ap Dijksterhuis, Henk Aarts, and Pamela K. Smith
5. Nonintentional Similarity Processing: Art Markman and Dedre Gentner
6. The Mechanics of Imagination: Automaticity and Control in Counterfactual Thinking: Neal Rose, Lawrence J. Sanna, and Adam D. Galinsky
7. Compensatory Automaticity: Unconscious Volition is not an Oxymoron: Jack Glaser and John F. Kihlstrom
8. Non Conscious Control and Implicit Working Memory: Ran R. Hassin
Section 3: Intention and Theory of Mind
9. Folk Theory of Mind: Conceptual Foundations of Human Social Cognition: Bertram F. Malle
10. The development of the intention concept: From the observable world to the unobservable mind: Jodie A. Baird and Janet W. Astington
11. Theory of Mind: Conscious Attribution and Spontaneous Trait Inference: Angeline S. Lillard and Lori Skibbe
Section 4: Perceiving and Engaging Others
12. The Glimpsed World: Unintended Communication and Unintended Perception: Y. Susan Choi, Heather M. Gray, and Nalini Ambady
13. Beyond the Perception-Behavior Link: The Ubiquitous Utility and Motivational Moderators of Nonconscious Mimicry: Tanya L. Chartrand, William W. Maddux, and Jessica L. Lakin
14. Implicit Impressions: James S. Uleman, Steven L. Blader, and Alexander Todorov
15. Attitudes as Accessibility Bias: Dissociating Automatic Controlled Processes: B. Keith Payne, Larry L. Jacoby, and Alan J. Lambert
16. The Unconscious Relational Self: Susan M. Anderson, Inga Reznik, and Noah S. Glassman
Section 5: Self-Regulation
17. The Control of the Unwanted: Peter M. Gollwitzer, Ute C. Bayer, and Kathleen C. McCulloch
18. Motivational Sources of Unintended Thought: Irrational Intrusions or Side Effects of Rational Strategies?: E. Tory Higgins
19. Going Beyond the Motivation Given: Self-Control and Situational Control over Behavior: Yaacov Trope and Ayelet Fishbach
Despite the number of authors, the editors have done an excellent job of maintaining a consistent style and readability, and there is remarkably little overlap between the chapters.
If you are looking for the best book so far on unconscious processes, I highly recommend this one.
Richard G. Petty, MD, author of Healing, Meaning and Purpose: The Magical Power of the Emerging Laws of Life
What I'll do instead is mention some of the insights I found in the book. I should say first, that some of the chapters involve a familiarity with psychological concepts that most of us don't have, but quite a number of chapters can be understood by people, like me, who are coming at the unconscious from other fields: sociology, business, cultural anthropology, education, etc.
With the emphasis here on what happens unconsciously, you might wonder why we have a consciousness at all. From an evolutionary standpoint, why did we develop one? One answer is that we need it to learn new things. But having learned them, the unconscious mind will take over their processing. So, in chapter 2, John Bargh notes: " "It would be ironic if... the evolved purpose of consciousness turns out to be the creation of ever more complex nonconscious processes."
In another chapter, Lillard and Skibbe note a cultural difference in what they call Spontaneous Trait Inference. That is, when we observe something, we ascribe a reason for it. (As cultural anthropologist Brosnan Malinkowski noted decades ago, the assumption of cause and effect is cross-cultural.) But Asian cultures are more apt to ascribe a situational reason, while Americans are more apt to ascribe an individualistic reason. (This is something I've noticed in political liberal vs political conservative attitudes. Looking at someone with a problem, such as being unemployed or using drugs, do you ascribe his situation to external causes or to a personality defect?) Food for thought.
Choi, Gray, and Ambrady discuss research in "unintended" communication and perception. They find, for instance, that we have built-in lie detectors -- we unconsciously pick up cues when someone is lying. This process is certainly imperfect, but it turns out that it works better than when trained interrogators try to detect lies. Apparently, bringing the conscious mind into the picture actually worsens the results. Interestingly, also, those trying to detect lies consciously are more confident of their results than the rest of us doing it unconsciously.
In that same chapter, the authors note research that indicates teacher-student expectations "leak" outside of verbal channels. That is, if teachers expect more from some students, that gets communicated to the students even if the teachers don't verbally indicate so. And it affects student performance, as we all tend to try to work up to expectations, unconsciously.
Chartrand, Maddux, and Lakin note that researchers have found a link between perception and doing. And that we have a very strong need to belong and affiliate within our own culture. Put that together, and it explains unconscious mimicry. Without our knowing we do it, we mimic the verbal patterns, language, and bodily movements of someone we're with and have a bond with. And this bidirectional mimicry increases that bond. While, on the other hand, research indicates that if we're with someone who was purposely told not to mimic us, we take an unconscious dislike to that person.
There are way more insights in the book, but I hope that provides a flavor of the topics covered. Certainly not an easy read, but one that definitely pays off the reader.