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Pasteurs Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation (Anglais) Broché – novembre 1996

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Over fifty years ago, Vannevar Bush released his enormously influential report, Science, the Endless Frontier, which asserted a dichotomy between basic and applied science. This view was at the core of the compact between government and science that led to the golden age of scientific research after World War II--a compact that is currently under severe stress. In this book, Donald Stokes challenges Bush's view and maintains that we can only rebuild the relationship between government and the scientific community when we understand what is wrong with that view. Stokes begins with an analysis of the goals of understanding and use in scientific research. He recasts the widely accepted view of the tension between understanding and use, citing as a model case the fundamental yet use-inspired studies by which Louis Pasteur laid the foundations of microbiology a century ago. Pasteur worked in the era of the " second industrial revolution, " when the relationship between basic science and technological change assumed its modern form. Over subsequent decades, technology has been increasingly science-based. But science has been increasingly technology-based--with the choice of problems and the conduct of research often inspired by societal needs. An example is the work of the quantum-effects physicists who are probing the phenomena revealed by the miniaturization of semiconductors from the time of the transistor's discovery after World War II. On this revised, interactive view of science and technology, Stokes builds a convincing case that by recognizing the importance of use-inspired basic research we can frame a new compact between science and government. His conclusions have majorimplications for both the scientific and policy communities and will be of great interest to those in the broader public who are troubled by the current role of basic science in American democracy.

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5.0 étoiles sur 5 Extremely useful for a debate 24 décembre 2007
Par Judith Zubieta - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
In times when many countries in the developing world are searching for strategies to join in the Knowledge Society, this book is key in portraying the shortcomings and successes of policies based on different scopes and approaches to S&T.
1 internautes sur 3 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Great read for anyone who is torn between basic and applied research 10 mars 2011
Par sreekar - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
Amazing read for anyone who is in research. Having said that, everyone should read this book as an exercise in philosophy of education, research and development.
5 internautes sur 5 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 The history and practice of pure and applied science: from the ancient Greeks-- to Pasteur--to American science policy 23 décembre 2012
Par Ulfilas - Publié sur
Format: Broché
The author constructs a narrative that picks out various moments in the history of science--not as a chronological progression, but moving forward and backward in time in order to touch upon analogous or contrasting events. He touches on the career of Louis Pasteur, examining different facets of his research, from a fundamental study of the crystallography of tartaric acid as a university student, to his aid to the distillery industry and their need to understand the microbial processes responsible for fermentation.

The title "Pasteur's Quadrant" comes from the author's idea of divvying up scientific endeavors on two axes, according to whether there are 1) utilitarian considerations; 2) some quest for fundamental understanding--thereby defining four quadrants. An example given for research that was undertaken for fundamental understanding, but not for utilitarian considerations was that of Niels Bohr's quantum theory. Research undertaken without regard to fundamental understanding, but completely for utilitarian reasons was that of inventor Thomas Edison. The research of Louis Pasteur, however, was undertaken to advance both fundamental understanding and utilitarian goals--thereby providing a template for much of modern science policy. I suppose that nobody would want to assume the mantle as the exemplar of research that is neither fundamental or useful. I, however, nominate creationism as an example of research that neither advances fundamental understanding, nor utilitarian goals!

The views of American World War II and Cold War policy guru Vannevar Bush are also considered, as is his recommendation that pure and applied research be separated to some degree, fearing that "applied research invariably drives out pure." This view articulated by Bush explains a story told to me by a senior colleague prominent in the government electronics research community. My colleague recounted to me his conversation with Nobel Laureate and transistor co-inventor Bill Shockley in the early 1960's. After my colleague gave a conference presentation which discussed the contributions of both pure and applied government research, he was sought out by Shockley--who found it most surprising that government researchers we able to "mix" pure and applied research.

The author does not confine his attention to the history of modern science. He discusses the origin of the scientific method in ancient Greece, as well as its modification in Medieval Europe. One interesting point, which I had not heard before, is the possible role of Christian monasticism in the development of science. It is claimed the the dignity of manual labor, as practiced by monks, helped elevate the status of both the applied and experimental aspects of science--thereby moving it forward and somewhat away from the elevated and aristocratic realm enshrined by the Greeks.
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Mission Oriented Programs and the Endless Frontier a review of Pasteur's Quadrant by Mahee Ferlini 21 octobre 2014
Par Mahee Ferlini - Publié sur
Format: Broché
This is a must if you really want to understand some key features of the US science and technology system, from Vannevar Bush onwards. The notion of frontier research/endless frontier, which has inspired the mission oriented programs which have promoted the plasticity and the continuous evolution of the US innovation system..... I found many connections with the writings of scholars like Richard Nelson, Keith Pavitt, Woody Powell, and .... their italian coauthors I am familiar with.... Mahee Ferlini
10 internautes sur 11 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Excellent Book for Mentoring Undergraduate and Graduate Students 16 août 2008
Par John W. Farrington - Publié sur
Format: Broché
This book provides a wonderful brief history of the transition in the USA between the end of World War II and the beginning of the USA-USSR Cold war in terms of national policy for supporting scientific research. Professor Stokes masterfully leads the reader through an elegant train of thought that provides a paradigm for simultaneously addressing "basic" and "applied" research without the oft seen excess baggage of which is "real" research.
I have used the paradigm and exceprts from this book in numerous seminars in the U.S. and other countries when presenting seminars to graduate students and undergraduates. Many of today's students want to conduct research that makes a difference for pressing societal needs but also do not wish to be subjected to the criticism of not being enough of an "academic researcher" when conducting their thesis research. This book and the explained paradigm provide the framework for guidance for these students and their advisors/mentors. I highly recommend it and have given away nuemrous copies to colleagues wordlwide.
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