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The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance (Anglais) Broché – 29 avril 2014

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Broché, 29 avril 2014
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Description du produit

Revue de presse

“I can’t remember a book that has fascinated, educated—and provoked—me as much as The Sports Gene. Epstein has changed forever the way we measure elite athletes and their achievements.”—Malcom Gladwell

“Clear, vivid, and thought-provoking writing that cuts through science anxiety for rank-and-file sports fans.”

Bonnie Ford, Senior Writer, ESPN


“Many researchers and writers are reluctant to tackle genetic issues because they fear the quicksand of racial and ethnic stereotyping. To his credit, Epstein does not flinch.”

The Washington Post 


“Epstein’s rigour in seeking answers and insights is as impressive as the air miles he must have accumulated . . . his book is dazzling and illuminating.”

The Guardian


“Few will put down this deliciously contrarian exploration of great athletic feats.”
Kirkus Reviews (Starred Review)


“The narrative follows Mr. Epstein’s search for the roots of elite sport performance as he encounters characters and stories so engrossing that readers may not realize they’re receiving an advanced course in genetics, physiology, and sports medicine.”

Christie AschwandenThe New York Times 

“An important book . . . The Sports Gene is bound to put the cat among the pigeons in the blank-slate crowd who think that we can all be equal as long as we equalize environmental inputs such as practice.”

Michael Shermer, The Wall Street Journal


“This is the book I’ve been waiting for since the early 1960s. I can’t imagine that anyone interested in sports—particularly the fascinating question, ‘How do the best athletes become the best?’—will be any less enthralled than I.”

Amby Burfoot, (1968 Boston Marathon Champion), Runner's World 
 

“A must-read for athletes, parents, coaches, and anyone who wants to know what it takes to be great.”

George Dohrmann, author of Play Their Hearts Out

Présentation de l'éditeur

The New York Times bestseller – with a new afterword about early specialization in youth sports.

The debate is as old as physical competition. Are stars like Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps, and Serena Williams genetic freaks put on Earth to dominate their respective sports? Or are they simply normal people who overcame their biological limits through sheer force of will and obsessive training?


In this controversial and engaging exploration of athletic success and the so-called 10,000-hour rule, David Epstein tackles the great nature vs. nurture debate and traces how far science has come in solving it. Through on-the-ground reporting from below the equator and above the Arctic Circle, revealing conversations with leading scientists and Olympic champions, and interviews with athletes who have rare genetic mutations or physical traits, Epstein forces us to rethink the very nature of athleticism.

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Format: Relié
*A full executive summary of this book will be available at newbooksinbrief dot com, on or before Tuesday, August 20, 2013.

What does it take to become an elite athlete? The intuitive answer for most of us is that it probably takes some lucky genes on the one hand, and a whole heck of a lot of hard work on the other. Specifically, that we may need to be blessed with a particular body type to excel at a particular sport or discipline (after all, elite marathon runners tend to look far different from elite NFL running backs, who in turn tend to look far different from elite swimmers), but that beyond this it is practice and diligence that paves the way to success. When we look at the science, though--as sports writer David Epstein does in his new book The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance--we find that the story is much more complicated than this. In general terms we find that nature and nurture interact at every step of the way in the development of an elite athlete, and that biology plays far more of a role (and in far more ways) than we may have expected.

To begin with, when it comes to physiology, we find that biology does indeed have a large role to play in influencing our height and skeletal structure (as we would expect), but that biology also influences physiology in many other ways that are important when it comes to elite sports.
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Format: Format Kindle Achat vérifié
Enorme boulot. Le débat "Inné ou Acquis ?" est bien posé, mis à jour par les découvertes récentes en génétique pour les nuls, illustré par une masse d'anecdotes et faits passionnants. De nombreux éléments critiques qui mettent en cause les nombreux mythes du sport (le don pur contre l'entraînement acharné, les foyers de talents, l'attraction des sports rémunérateurs, ...).
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Tres interessant! Malgré quelques termes assez technique sur le sport en anglais, les etudes scientifiques sont racontees de façon tres simples, jadore
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Amazon.com: 4.6 étoiles sur 5 462 commentaires
143 internautes sur 152 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 The Science Behind Elite Athletic Performance 5 août 2013
Par Book Shark - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié Achat vérifié
The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance by David Epstein

"The Sports Gene" is an enjoyable book that shares the latest of modern genetic research as it relates to elite athleticism. In the never-ending quest to settle the debate of nature versus nature, David Epstein takes the readers on a journey into sports and tries to answer how much does each contribute. This fascinating 352-page book includes the following sixteen chapters: 1. Beat by an Underhand Girl: The Gene-Free Model of Expertise, 2. A Tale of Two High Jumpers: (Or: 10,000 Hours Plus or Minus 10,000 Hours), 3. Major League Vision and the Greatest Child Athlete Sample Ever: The Hardware and Software Paradigm, 4. Why Men Have Nipples, 5. The Talent of Trainability, 6. Superbaby, Bully Whippets, and the Trainability of Muscle, 7. The Big Bang of Body Types, 8. The Vitruvian NBA Player, 9. We Are All Black (Sort Of): Race and Genetic Diversity, 10. The Warrior-Slave Theory of Jamaican Sprinting, 11. Malaria and Muscle Fibers, 12. Can Every Kalenjin Run?, 13. The World's Greatest Accidental (Altitudinous) Talent Sieve, 14. Sled Dogs, Ultrarunners, and Couch Potato Genes, 15. The Heartbreak Gene: Death, Injury, and Pain on the Field, and 16 The Gold Medal Mutation.

Positives:
1. Well-written, well-researched book. Epstein is very engaging and keeps the science at a very accessible level.
2. Fascinating topic that sports fans will enjoy. A look at elite athleticism through the eyes of science. Sports elites. I'm there!
3. Epstein does a fantastic job of skillfully handling the very sensitive topic of race and genetics. Any minor miscue and it would have derailed the book but Epstein never lets that happen and should be commended for his utmost care.
4. There are very few books on this interesting topic and this one covers multiple sports. And behind it all is the quest to find what's behind elite athleticism, "The question for scientists is: What accounts for that variance, practice, genes, or something else?"
5. You are guaranteed to learn something new. As an avid sports fan and reader, I didn't expect to learn too many new facts but I am always humbled and pleasantly surprised when I do.
6. The importance of experience in athletics. "Studies that track the eye movements of experienced performers, whether chess players, pianists, surgeons, or athletes, have found that as experts gain experience they are quicker to sift through visual information and separate the wheat from the chaff."
7. Golfers will pick up a valuable scientific tip...I'm not going to spoil it here.
8. The 10,000 hours rule in perspective. "Studies of athletes have tended to find that the top competitors require far less than 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to reach elite status. According to the scientific literature, the average sport-specific practice hours to reach the international levels in basketball, field hockey, and wrestling are closer to 4,000, 4,000, and 6,000, respectively."
9. Understanding the importance behind visual acuity and its importance in sports like baseball. "Coincidentally, or perhaps not, twenty-nine often is the age at which visual acuity starts to deteriorate and the age when hitters, as a group, begin to decline."
10. Important lessons shared, "To this day," Woods said in 2000, "my dad has never asked me to go play golf. I ask him. It's the child's desire to play that matters, not the parent's desire to have the child play."
11. Addressing the differences in gender. "Much of sexual differentiation comes down to a single gene on the Y chromosome: the SRY gene, or "sex determining region Y" gene. Insofar as there is an "athleticism gene," the SRY gene is it." Great stuff!
12. So who was the greatest high-school athlete of all time according to ESPN? Find out.
13. The impact of the Human Genome Project as it relates to sports. The naturally fit six...
14. The science behind muscle growth. "Something that myostatin does signals muscles to cease growing. They had discovered the genetic version of a muscle stop sign. In the absence of myostatin, muscle growth explodes." A lot of good information here.
15. Discusses physical traits by sport that give the athletes innate advantages over the competition. "The height of a sprinter is often critical to his best event. The world's top competitors in the 60-meter sprint are almost always shorter than those in the 100-, 200-, and 400-meter sprints, because shorter legs and lower mass are advantageous for acceleration."
16. A cool look at the NBA. My favorite team of all time, the 95-96 Chicago Bulls (Jordan, Pippen and Rodman). Some eye-opening facts concerning wingspan.
17. Scientific observations, "Low-latitude Africans and Australian Aborigines had the proportionally longest legs and shortest torsos. So this is not strictly about ethnicity so much as geography."
18. Race and genetic diversity. "Kidd's work, along with that of other geneticists, archaeologists, and paleontologists, supports the "recent African origin" model--that essentially every modern human outside of Africa can trace his or her ancestry to a single population that resided in sub-Saharan East Africa as recently as ninety thousand years ago." Honestly, where would we be without understanding the grand theory of evolution? An excellent chapter, worth the price of the book.
19. Mind-blowing facts, " In an example particularly relevant to sports, about 10 percent of people with European ancestry have two copies of a gene variant that allows them to dope with impunity." Wow!
20. An interesting look at Jamaican sprinting and Kenyan long-term running. What's behind the success? "Consider this: seventeen American men in history have run a marathon faster than 2:10 (or a 4:58 per mile pace); thirty-two Kalenjin men did it just in October 2011." Say what?
21. The honest limitations of the young science of genetics, "Just as it is tough to find genes for height--even though we know they exist--it is extraordinarily difficult to pin down genes for even one physiological factor involved in running, let alone all of them."
22. Is motivation genetic? Interesting.
23. Genetic diseases. "According to statistics that Maron has compiled, at least one high school, college, or pro athlete with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) will drop dead somewhere in the United States every other week."
24. An excellent epilogue on the perfect athlete, "In reality, any case for sports expertise that leans entirely on either nature or nurture is a straw-man argument."
25. Notes and selected citations included.

Negatives:
1. Football is the most popular sports in America bar none but wasn't really given as much paper as I was hoping for; sure you get some stories about Jerome Bettis, Herschel Walker, head injuries and weight lifting...but not the treatment a sport of its magnitude would warrant.
2. The science is very basic and done so to reach a larger audience. Links or an appendix would have given curious readers more to immediately munch on.
3. At no fault of the author, the science of genetics is still too young to be able to answer the most demanding questions to a satisfactory level.
4. No formal separate bibliography...you have to surf through the notes.
5. Few links.

In summary, the perfect summer book. This was a page-turner of a book that provides us a glimpse into elite athleticism through the eyes of science. David Epstein provides sports enthusiasts with a scientific treat. One thing is perfectly clear...genetics is very complex and we are in its infancy. That being said, it's fascinating science and its increased understanding will continue to be applied to the world of sports. Epstein provides readers with an excellent appetizer of things to come; if you are interested in how genetics is being applied to extraordinary athletic performance, I highly recommend this book!

Recommendations: "Outliers: The Story of Success" by Malcom Gladwell, "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us" by Daniel H. Pink, "The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business" by Charles Duhigg, "Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (Vintage)" by Leonard Mlodinow, "Running Science" by Owen Anderson, "Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body" by Neil Shubin, "The Making of the Fittest: DNA and the Ultimate Forensic Record of Evolution" by Sean B. Carroll, "The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution" by Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending, "Relics of Eden: The Powerful Evidence of Evolution in Human DNA" by Daniel J. Fairbanks, "Why Darwin Matters: The Case Against Intelligent Design" by Michael Shermer, "Only a Theory" by Kenneth R. Miller, "The Greatest Show on Earth" by Richard Dawkins and, "Why Evolution Is True" by Jerry A. Coyne.
7 internautes sur 7 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Extraordinary 17 septembre 2014
Par Michael Carroll - Publié sur Amazon.com
Achat vérifié
This book is subtitled “Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance.” In a word, the book itself is extraordinary. I have had a long interest in mostly all sports, have participated in many, and refereed basketball for many years. I have seen every level of ability and am drawn to stories of human performance, endurance, and physical improvement. I have seen enormous talent and am particularly intrigued by those who excel at the highest levels. Thus, I was inclined to find this work interesting. I found it to be even better than anticipated. Epstein captivated me with his anecdotes, analysis of clinical studies, and superb writing. I wholeheartedly endorse his work.

Epstein marvelously explains complex genetic processes and their effect on physiology while simultaneously discussing the influence of culture and environment on elite performance. Nature and nurture deftly described. Examples of each influence and their interplay abound, such as Albert Pujols’ inability to hit a woman pitching underhand; the trainability of a young Jim Ryan who couldn’t make his junior high track team yet became the first sub-four minute high school runner in a few short years; the remarkable sprinting of Jamaicans and the comparably astounding endurance of Kenyan and Ethiopian runners. These are just a few of the many fascinating performers highlighted in the book.

On the nature side, the author reports on the genetic research that reveals the role of genes and resulting physical capacities and/or weaknesses in areas such as visual acuity, muscle growth, limb length, fast and slow twitch muscles, aerobic capacity, oxygen usage and efficiency, energy efficiency based on body structure, testosterone, doping, and several others.

In respect to nurture, Epstein reports on studies describing the effect of geography, altitude, family, income, poverty, culture, motivation, drive, the 10,000 hours practice concept, etc. In every instance of performance there is a confluence of factors from both nature and nurture, the precise amount of each varying with individuals and being practically impossible to tease out. Researchers, however, continue to make new discoveries and fortunately there is a David Epstein reporting on and explaining the implications of this complex work.

While some gene mutations can enhance performance significantly , other mutations, as is well known, cause disease. The boundary line between these vastly different outcomes is not always or automatically clear. Epstein addresses this topic with feeling and candor as he describes sudden heart disease in young athletes, one of whom was a teammate and close friend. He also elucidates some of the genes implicated in brain insult along with injuries that result from damaged ligaments and tendons.

I had never read anything by David Epstein previously. His reporting of difficult scientific material was so clear, instructive and eminently readable that I will easily and eagerly reach for his next effort.
4 internautes sur 4 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 What an Outstanding Read! 21 septembre 2013
Par Kerry Keenam - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié Achat vérifié
David Epstein is an exceptional sports journalist with impeccable credentials. I hope, for SI's sake, that he's well paid and happy with his current accommodations at the Time & Life building, Roc Center. No doubt ESPN, and a myriad of other sports publication giants, would love to have him on their staff. This book was incredible, so excellently researched, and written in such a way as to make the mysteries of "over-the-top" athleticism available to the scores of sports fans, like myself, who are sports medicine novices. If you haven't done it yet, it would behove you to log on to SI.com and check out the archived articles of David Epstein. Once you do, no doubt you'll understand how he was able to produce such an excellent read as 'The Sports Gene' certainly is. I pre-ordered this book via my Amazon Prime account and received it on the official August 1st release date. So, Max Kudo's to Amazon. Luckily for me, I did pre-order, and didn't have to wait it out as this book climbed into the NYT's Top 10 Non-Fiction Book List immediately, totally catching the publisher, Penguin, by surprise. Penguin had to crank up the printing presses to meet Amazon's customer demand. BTW, 'The Sports Gene' is currently sitting at #209 on Amazon's Best Selling Book list. Sorry, but I can't force myself to make a decision on which chapter of the book I deemed the best. Chapter after chapter, I encountered such unexpected insight via Mr. Epstein's research process, that when I turned the page to engage the next chapter, I was positive he couldn't top the reading enjoyment I had just moments ago experienced. But, he did, time and time again. I own, and continually expand, a home library of over 10,000 hardback and soft-bound volumes, so, very, very humbly, I'm convinced I know the difference between a bad book, a mediocre book, a good book, and a GREAT book. The Sports Gene is a GREAT book. Buy it, read it, and I can guarantee you will enjoy it.
Thanks, Kerry... Opelousas LA.
2 internautes sur 2 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
4.0 étoiles sur 5 Interesting 24 août 2013
Par Jensen - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Relié Achat vérifié
To summarize the book says to be the best you have to have the genes. The book seems to layout that 1) you need good genes like being able to transport oxygen to your body better than normal 2) be raised is the right environment like being raised in a high altitude to develop bigger lungs and 3) practice which is the least important of the three. Depending on how much of the first 2 you have will determine how much of 3 (practice) you need before you become great. Interesting examples that seem to go on a bit by the end of the book. Not a book to get if you are looking for ideas on how to improve as an athlete. The book is a good supplement to other books like The Talent Code and Outliers which kind of imply that 10,000 hours of practice is needed. The Sports Gene says you could be a master in 3,000 hours or flat out never depending on what genes you have.
1 internautes sur 1 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Settle the Debate of Nurture v. Nature 1 août 2015
Par Rasheed - Publié sur Amazon.com
Format: Format Kindle Achat vérifié
I first learned of this book from Paul Harvey's syndicated radio spot. I was so intrigued by the topic because of my own athletic background (as paltry as it may be) and my avid interest in sports. I wanted to know what this book had to offer to the argument of nurture vs. nature.

David Epstein does a fantastic job digging into the argument and unearthing qualified evidence to support both sides. He remains objective and professional throughout the entire treatise. In the 280 or so pages he spans the globe, spans the sports landscape and spans the genetic map to find out what makes superior athletes superior athletes. He interviews scientists, authors, professors, trainers and athletes. He references research from many different scientists and researchers to support their claim of genetics or environment or history or other. I've never had such a thorough lesson in genes and gene mutations.

But don't let the content intimidate you or scare you into believing that this book is drab and reads like a text book. It is very interesting and uses a somewhat storytelling style to convey the facts, opinions and anecdotal evidences. It was very interesting to read how certain genes were found in certain athletes or how poverty or lack thereof can contribute to athletics. Poverty and the absence of facilities and training has hindered some nations and wealth has hindered others! Yes, when you have cars, plenty of food and video games with no need to walk to school and no interest in running because there is no need to--then your nation will lose runners.

It was great to read the different hypotheses, their evidence and their conclusions. I think David did a very objective and fair job in presenting everything there was to present. Even the conclusions he presented in a very non-biased way and leaving them open for the reader. Ultimately there are so many factors that go into being a superior athlete that no one thing can be pointed to but it won't stop us from trying to find out.
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