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Thinking in Pictures par [Grandin, Temple]
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Thinking in Pictures Format Kindle

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Longueur : 308 pages Word Wise: Activé Composition améliorée: Activé
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Descriptions du produit


Thinking in Pictures
Autism and Visual Thought

I THINK IN PICTURES. Words are like a second language to me. I translate both spoken and written words into full-­color movies, complete with sound, which run like a VCR tape in my head. When somebody speaks to me, his words are instantly translated into pictures. Language-­based thinkers often find this phenomenon difficult to understand, but in my job as an equipment designer for the livestock industry, visual thinking is a tremendous advantage.

Visual thinking has enabled me to build entire systems in my imagination. During my career I have designed all kinds of equipment, ranging from corrals for handling cattle on ranches to systems for handling cattle and hogs during veterinary procedures and slaughter. I have worked for many major livestock companies. In fact, one third of the cattle and hogs in the United States are handled in equipment I have designed. Some of the people I’ve worked for don’t even know that their systems were designed by someone with autism. I value my ability to think visually, and I would never want to lose it.

One of the most profound mysteries of autism has been the remarkable ability of most autistic people to excel at visual spatial skills while performing so poorly at verbal skills. When I was a child and a teenager, I thought everybody thought in pictures. I had no idea that my thought processes were different. In fact, I did not realize the full extent of the differences until very recently. At meetings and at work I started asking other people detailed questions about how they accessed information from their memories. From their answers I learned that my visualization skills far exceeded those of most other people.

I credit my visualization abilities with helping me understand the animals I work with. Early in my career I used a camera to help give me the animals’ perspective as they walked through a chute for their veterinary treatment. I would kneel down and take pictures through the chute from the cow’s eye level. Using the photos, I was able to figure out which things scared the cattle, such as shadows and bright spots of sunlight. Back then I used black-­and-­white film, because twenty years ago scientists believed that cattle lacked color vision. Today, research has shown that cattle can see colors, but the photos provided the unique advantage of seeing the world through a cow’s viewpoint. They helped me figure out why the animals refused to go in one chute but willingly walked through another.

Every design problem I’ve ever solved started with my ability to visualize and see the world in pictures. I started designing things as a child, when I was always experimenting with new kinds of kites and model airplanes. In elementary school I made a helicopter out of a broken balsa-­wood airplane. When I wound up the propeller, the helicopter flew straight up about a hundred feet. I also made bird-­shaped paper kites, which I flew behind my bike. The kites were cut out from a single sheet of heavy drawing paper and flown with thread. I experimented with different ways of bending the wings to increase flying performance. Bending the tips of the wings up made the kite fly higher. Thirty years later, this same design started appearing on commercial aircraft.

Now, in my work, before I attempt any construction, I test-­run the equipment in my imagination. I visualize my designs being used in every possible situation, with different sizes and breeds of cattle and in different weather conditions. Doing this enables me to correct mistakes prior to construction. Today, everyone is excited about the new virtual reality computer systems in which the user wears special goggles and is fully immersed in video game action. To me, these systems are like crude cartoons. My imagination works like the computer graphics programs that created the lifelike dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. When I do an equipment simulation in my imagination or work on an engineering problem, it is like seeing it on a videotape in my mind. I can view it from any angle, placing myself above or below the equipment and rotating it at the same time. I don’t need a fancy graphics program that can produce three-­dimensional design simulations. I can do it better and faster in my head.

I create new images all the time by taking many little parts of images I have in the video library in my imagination and piecing them together. I have video memories of every item I’ve ever worked with—steel gates, fences, latches, concrete walls, and so forth. To create new designs, I retrieve bits and pieces from my memory and combine them into a new whole. My design ability keeps improving as I add more visual images to my library. I add videolike images from either actual experiences or translations of written information into pictures. I can visualize the operation of such things as squeeze chutes, truck loading ramps, and all different types of livestock equipment. The more I actually work with cattle and operate equipment, the stronger my visual memories become.

I first used my video library in one of my early livestock design projects, creating a dip vat and cattle-­handling facility for John Wayne’s Red River feed yard in Arizona. A dip vat is a long, narrow, seven-­foot-­deep swimming pool through which cattle move in single file. It is filled with pesticide to rid the animals of ticks, lice, and other external parasites. In 1978, existing dip vat designs were very poor. The animals often panicked because they were forced to slide into the vat down a steep, slick concrete decline. They would refuse to jump into the vat, and sometimes they would flip over backward and drown. The engineers who designed the slide never thought about why the cattle became so frightened.

The first thing I did when I arrived at the feedlot was to put myself inside the cattle’s heads and look out through their eyes. Because their eyes are on the sides of their heads, cattle have wide-­angle vision, so it was like walking through the facility with a wide-­angle video camera. I had spent the past six years studying how cattle see their world and watching thousands move through different facilities all over Arizona, and it was immediately obvious to me why they were scared. Those cattle must have felt as if they were being forced to jump down an airplane escape slide into the ocean.

Cattle are frightened by high contrasts of light and dark as well as by people and objects that move suddenly. I’ve seen cattle that were handled in two identical facilities easily walk through one and balk in the other. The only difference between the two facilities was their orientation to the sun. The cattle refused to move through the chute where the sun cast harsh shadows across it. Until I made this observation, nobody in the feedlot industry had been able to explain why one veterinary facility worked better than the other. It was a matter of observing the small details that made a big difference. To me, the dip vat problem was even more obvious.

My first step in designing a better system was collecting all the published information on existing dip vats. Before doing anything else, I always check out what is considered state-­of-­the-­art so I don’t waste time reinventing the wheel. Then I turned to livestock publications, which usually have very limited information, and my library of video memories, all of which contained bad designs. From experience with other types of equipment, such as unloading ramps for trucks, I had learned that cattle willingly walk down a ramp that has cleats to provide secure, nonslip footing. Sliding causes them to panic and back up. The challenge was to design an entrance that would encourage the cattle to walk in voluntarily and plunge into the water, which was deep enough to submerge them completely, so that all the bugs, including those that collect in their ears, would be eliminated.

I started running three-­dimensional visual simulations in my imagination. I experimented with different entrance designs and made the cattle walk through them in my imagination. Three images merged to form the final design: a memory of a dip vat in Yuma, Arizona, a portable vat I had seen in a magazine, and an entrance ramp I had seen on a restraint device at the Swift meat-­packing plant in Tolleson, Arizona. The new dip vat entrance ramp was a modified version of the ramp I had seen there. My design contained three features that had never been used before: an entrance that would not scare the animals, an improved chemical filtration system, and the use of animal behavior principles to prevent the cattle from becoming overexcited when they left the vat.

The first thing I did was convert the ramp from steel to concrete. The final design had a concrete ramp on a twenty-­five-­degree downward angle. Deep grooves in the concrete provided secure footing. The ramp appeared to enter the water gradually, but in reality it abruptly dropped away below the water’s surface. The animals could not see the drop-­off because the dip chemicals colored the water. When they stepped out over the water, they quietly fell in, because their center of gravity had passed the point of no return.

Before the vat was built, I tested the entrance design many times in my imagination. Many of the cowboys at the feedlot were skeptical and did not believe my design would work. After it was constructed, they modified it behind my back, because they were sure it was wrong. A metal sheet was installed over the nonslip ramp, converting it back to an old-­fashioned slide entrance. The first day they used it, two cattle drowned because they panicked and flipped over backward.

When I saw the metal sheet, I made the cowboys take it out. They were flabbergasted when they saw that the ramp now worked perfectly. Each calf stepped out over the steep drop-­off and quietly plopped into the water. I fondly refer to this design as “cattle walking on water.”

Over the years, I have observed that many ranchers and cattle feeders think that the only way to induce animals to enter handling facilities is to force them in. The owners and managers of feedlots sometimes have a hard time comprehending that if devices such as dip vats and restraint chutes are properly designed, cattle will voluntarily enter them. I can imagine the sensations the animals would feel. If I had a calf’s body and hooves, I would be very scared to step on a slippery metal ramp.

There were still problems I had to resolve after the animals left the dip vat. The platform where they exit is usually divided into two pens so that cattle can dry on one side while the other side is being filled. No one understood why the animals coming out of the dip vat would sometimes become excited, but I figured it was because they wanted to follow their drier buddies, not unlike children divided from their classmates on a playground. I installed a solid fence between the two pens to prevent the animals on one side from seeing the animals on the other side. It was a very simple solution, and it amazed me that nobody had ever thought of it before.

The system I designed for filtering and cleaning the cattle hair and other gook out of the dip vat was based on a swimming pool filtration system. My imagination scanned two specific swimming pool filters that I had operated, one on my Aunt Brecheen’s ranch in Arizona and one at our home. To prevent water from splashing out of the dip vat, I copied the concrete coping overhang used on swimming pools. That idea, like many of my best designs, came to me very clearly just before I drifted off to sleep at night.

Being autistic, I don’t naturally assimilate information that most people take for granted. Instead, I store information in my head as if it were on a CD-­ROM disc. When I recall something I have learned, I replay the video in my imagination. The videos in my memory are always specific; for example, I remember ­handling cattle at the veterinary chute at Producer’s Feedlot or McElhaney Cattle Company. I remember exactly how the animals behaved in that specific situation and how the chutes and other equipment were built. The exact construction of steel fence­posts and pipe rails in each case is also part of my visual memory. I can run these images over and over and study them to solve design problems.

If I let my mind wander, the video jumps in a kind of free association from fence construction to a particular welding shop where I’ve seen posts being cut and Old John, the welder, making gates. If I continue thinking about Old John welding a gate, the video image changes to a series of short scenes of building gates on several projects I’ve worked on. Each video memory triggers another in this associative fashion, and my daydreams may wander far from the design problem. The next image may be of having a good time listening to John and the construction crew tell war stories, such as the time the backhoe dug into a nest of rattle­snakes and the machine was abandoned for two weeks because everybody was afraid to go near it.

This process of association is a good example of how my mind can wander off the subject. People with more severe autism have difficulty stopping endless associations. I am able to stop them and get my mind back on track. When I find my mind wandering too far away from a design problem I am trying to solve, I just tell myself to get back to the problem.

Interviews with autistic adults who have good speech and are able to articulate their thought processes indicate that most of them also think in visual images. More severely impaired people, who can speak but are unable to explain how they think, have highly associational thought patterns. Charles Hart, the author of Without Reason, a book about his autistic son and brother, sums up his son’s thinking in one sentence: “Ted’s thought processes aren’t logical, they’re associational.” This explains Ted’s statement “I’m not afraid of planes. That’s why they fly so high.” In his mind, planes fly high because he is not afraid of them; he combines two pieces of information, that planes fly high and that he is not afraid of heights.

Another indicator of visual thinking as the primary method of processing information is the remarkable ability many autistic people exhibit in solving jigsaw puzzles, finding their way around a city, or memorizing enormous amounts of information at a glance. My own thought patterns are similar to those described by A. R. Luria in The Mind of a Mnemonist. This book describes a man who worked as a newspaper reporter and could perform amazing feats of memory. Like me, the mnemonist had a visual image for everything he had heard or read. Luria writes, “For when he heard or read a word, it was at once converted into a visual image corresponding with the object the word signified for him.” The great inventor Nikola Tesla was also a visual thinker. When he designed electric turbines for power generation, he built each turbine in his head. He operated it in his imagination and corrected faults. He said it did not matter whether the turbine was tested in his thoughts or in his shop; the results would be the same.

Early in my career I got into fights with other engineers at meat-­packing plants. I ­couldn’t imagine that they could be so stupid as not to see the mistakes on the drawing before the equipment was installed. Now I realize it was not stupidity but a lack of visualization skills. They literally could not see. I was fired from one company that manufactured meat-­packing plant equipment because I fought with the engineers over a design which eventually caused the collapse of an overhead track that moved 1,200-­pound beef carcasses from the end of a conveyor. As each carcass came off the conveyor, it dropped about three feet before it was abruptly halted by a chain attached to a trolley on the overhead track. The first time the machine was run, the track was pulled out of the ceiling. The employees fixed it by bolting it more securely and installing additional brackets. This only solved the problem temporarily, because the force of the carcasses jerking the chains was so great. Strengthening the overhead track was treating a symptom of the problem rather than its cause. I tried to warn them. It was like bending a paper clip back and forth too many times. After a while it breaks.

Revue de presse

"I hardly know what to say about this remarkable book. . . . It provides a way to understand the many kinds of sentience, human and animal, that adorn the earth." --Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, author of The Hidden Life of Dogs

"There are innumerable astounding facets to this remarkable book. . . . Displaying uncanny powers of observation . . . [Temple Grandin] charts the differences between her life and the lives of those who think in words." --The Philadelphia Inquirer

"A uniquely fascinating view not just of autism but of animal--and human--thinking and feeling, [providing] insights that can only be called wisdom." --Deborah Tannen, author of You Just Don't Understand

"How does a true marvel let you know it has arrived?. . . . It's hard to imagine even an intellect as towering as Sacks's coming up wtih perceptions as rare and completely out of left field as Grandin herself does in this mind-blowing book." --Newsday

"Temple Grandin's window onto the subjective experience of autism is of value to all of us who hope to gain a deeper understanding of the human mind by exploring the ways in which it responds to the world's challenges." --The Washington Times

"Temple Grandin, the anthropologist from Mars, takes us on a journey through her inner life and, with exquisite scientific detail, offers us a near photograph of the workings of her visual mind." --John Ratey, coauthor of Driven to Distinction

"Temple Grandin's legacy is the invaluable gift of compassion. This is a journey of courage, determination, and, above all, worth. Society is the better for Temple Grandin having left her mark on it." --Alex Pacheco, President, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

"Thinking in Pictures is a beautiful book. . . . Grandin has created a beautifully odd and fascinating picture of her life and mind, and her abiding love of animals." --Elle

"A tireless researcher with a bionic memory and a superb education, no one can write wtih Temple's authority because nobody knows as much as she does! This is an outstanding book that every parent and professional in the field of special needs will want to read, and the general reader will acquire a new appreciation of autism, its liabilities, and its formidable assets." --Annabel Stehli, author of The Sound of a Miracle

"Even Sacks's fine writing about autism does not really compare to writing from within autism, because autism is a disorder of interiority. . . . Grandin has replaced the teleology of autobiography with something much closer to her heart: a diagram, in this case a diagram of her own mind." --Voice Literary Supplement

Détails sur le produit

  • Format : Format Kindle
  • Taille du fichier : 3026 KB
  • Nombre de pages de l'édition imprimée : 308 pages
  • Pagination - ISBN de l'édition imprimée de référence : 0747585326
  • Editeur : Bloomsbury Publishing; Édition : 1 (7 septembre 2009)
  • Vendu par : Amazon Media EU S.à r.l.
  • Langue : Anglais
  • ASIN: B00394UCLQ
  • Synthèse vocale : Non activée
  • X-Ray :
  • Word Wise: Activé
  • Composition améliorée: Activé
  • Moyenne des commentaires client : 5.0 étoiles sur 5 2 commentaires client
  • Classement des meilleures ventes d'Amazon: n°161.183 dans la Boutique Kindle (Voir le Top 100 dans la Boutique Kindle)
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Format: Broché
Temple Grandin est une belle personne, son courage et sa lucidité sont exemplaires ; ses livres enseignent toute personne qui la lit , sans prétention, sans leçon parce qu'elle ouvre ceux qui la rencontrent à la différence , à toutes les différences , et aux respects pour chaque être vivant : j'avais donc un peu peur en visionnant ce DVD , mais non ; le monde sensoriel dans lequel vit Temple Grandin et qui lui rend la vie si difficile , ses difficultés sociales qu'elle a passé sa vie à apprivoiser , sont bien rendus ; juste un bémol : son engagement ensuite dans sa carrière professionnelle aurait pu être développé , car c'est très "enseignant" ; mais il aurait fallu hélas plus de temps , voire une 2ème DVD
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Un livre essentielle pour comprendre l'autisme et le syndrome d'Asperger; et aussi une voyage au fond d'une vie magnifique dans l'univers du pensée d'une personne extraordinaire (Temple Grandin) et du mystères du cerveau.
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Commentaires client les plus utiles sur (beta) 4.6 étoiles sur 5 304 commentaires
139 internautes sur 144 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Thinking In Pictues: And Other Reports from My Life With Aut 28 avril 2000
Par Un client - Publié sur
Format: Broché
This is a must-read book for parents, professionals, and teenagers/adults living with autism (it is not appropriate for younger readers). It is easy to read, entertaining and informative. Readers will come away with a greater understanding of autism and how widely the spectrum of autistic disorders can vary, as well as what to do to help someone with autism.
Ms. Grandin's greatest gift lies in her ability to understand both the worlds of non-autistics and autistics alike. Using her personal experiences as well as significant contributions from other people, she explains how baffling the world is to a person with autistism, in terms of unwritten social codes, our reliance on verbal thinking, relationships, appearances, etc. She discusses concrete ways in which autistics can be helped to integrate with society -- in families, friendships, other relationships, schools, and jobs.
Her chapter on medication is valuable, discussing how autism often requires different doses than are commonly prescribed. This is information that isn't readily available unless you are working with a physician who has extensive experience with autistic patients. Since an autistic person is highly sensitive, the effects of behavior modification medications are often amplified, requiring a lower dose. Particular attention needs to be given to medication combinations.
There is also information on many of the related disorders that often accompany autism, such as sensory integration disorders, Tourrette's Syndrome, ADD, etc. Everything is written from the perspective of the autistic with Ms. Grandin acting as translator.
Besides being informative, the book is optimistic in its view of autism. Ms. Grandin plainly credits autism for her success in her chosen profession. In fact, my only criticism of the book is the length of time she devotes to discussing her career path (this information is also contained in her earlier book "Emergence" ). However, this information may be motivating to autistics reading the book as she certainly has achieved remarkable things. She also includes a chapter on other highly accomplished autistics, with the message that different neurological wiring can be a great asset if properly supported early in life.
It is an informative, inspirational book that opens a window on autism and lets the rest of the world look in and understand.
131 internautes sur 136 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Insightful and Thought-Provoking 6 novembre 2006
Par Amazon Customer - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
This book is absolutely amazing. I have 2 children with Asperger's and Temple Grandin's insight into why people with autism have certain behaviors was eye-opening. It also gave me a whole new perspective on what thought processes may effect their ability to learn abstract things and socialize with others. I would highly recommend this book to anyone. Even if you don't personally know someone with autism it can certainly give you a first-hand look at how different people think differently.
95 internautes sur 100 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 An enlightening glimpse into the autistic mind 15 septembre 2006
Par Clinton B. Mckinlay - Publié sur
Format: Broché
I have a 6-year-old autistic son. Though we love him tremendously, my wife and I have struggled greatly in raising him. This breakthrough book has helped us approach our interactions with him in a more effective manner. It also sheds precious insight into the autistic world for any curious or thoughtful person with an interest to know more. Thank you Temple Grandin for your remarkable achievements in life, which give us great hope for our son. And thank for giving us invaluable perspective on autism. You have blessed the lives of countless people.
83 internautes sur 90 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
5.0 étoiles sur 5 Fascinating mind 26 novembre 2006
Par Lynetta Anne - Publié sur
Format: Broché
Whether you know anyone with Asperger's or not, this book will enlighten and expand your thinking about how minds work and what it means to be human. As in most areas, most people assume that other people think and perceive the same way that they do, and that this is the "only right way to do it." But when everyone thinks the same way, break-through thinking is almost impossible.

Reading this book I wondered if, without the awe-inspiring differences, we would have ever moved out of mud huts. It seems to me that the lessons stretch far beyond what it means to have Aspergers, although learning what that means is an incredible gift.

We need to treat our differences with awe, wonder and respect and recognize how people who are "differently wired" have helped to shape our world.
57 internautes sur 62 ont trouvé ce commentaire utile 
3.0 étoiles sur 5 Special Skills, Special People 11 octobre 2010
Par Peggy - Publié sur
Format: Broché Achat vérifié
Thinking in Pictures, by Temple Grandin (page cites)
Emergence: Labeled Autistic, by Temple Grandin
The Way I See It, by Temple Grandin

These are excellent books for anyone dealing with autistic people. Temple Grandin, Ph.D. describes her own autism in Thinking in Pictures, with her brain's profound difference from other people's. Oliver Sacks, the brilliant neurologist, says "Temple does not romanticize autism, nor does she downplay how much her autism has cut her off " from others (xviii). For her words are a second language; basically her perceptions, her understanding of the world is in pictures. Emergence is devoted to her early childhood while Thinking concentrates more on her adult life. She used her faculties successfully and now one-third of cattle and hogs in the United States are processed in systems she has designed. To design this equipment, Temple uses her special visual thinking abilities to examine blue-print simulations three-dimensionally. She can run images over and over in her head, from different angles, to study them and improve their design.

After talking with hundreds of families and individuals with autism or Asperger's, Temple has come to see three basic categories of specialized brains: visual thinkers, music and math (or pattern) thinkers, and verbal logic thinkers, and recommends that there be more educational emphasis on building the strengths of each individual rather than trying to repair deficits. Each group brings its own strengths. After briefly describing her own early childhood behavior, Temple notes that within each brain pattern category there are different levels of ability, from high performing to savant, from Asperger's to Kanner-type autism.

Temple stresses that autism has both a cognitive and sensory component depending on the wiring of that child's brain. Thus these will differ in each child. Consequently the expression of autism is different in each child and it is impossible to predict from the severity of the symptoms at age two or three a long-term prognosis (48). She believes the highly variable volatility of autism is due to the interaction of multiple genes (54), and training and education should be tailored to the individual child. Emergence stresses this point and the last chapter, Autistics and the Real World, lists a series of factors that a parent or caretaker should consider for each child diagnosed as autistic. In The Way I See It, Dr. Grandin emphasizes that parents and teachers should not focus on the diagnostic label, but encourage the child to reach his or her highest potential. She believes that many brilliant contributors to society from Jefferson to Einstein were on the Asperger's continuum. It is interesting that in her earliest book, Emergence, Grandin talks of `reformed' or `recovered' autistics, a label that she definitely drops in her later works. Rather she emphasizes their positive interactions over the image of damaged or failed people. In The Way I See It, Grandin moves further away from the `damaged' concept to showing how autistics bring special skills and abilities. She reinforces how to be a successful autistic person by learning life skills and finding a job or hobby that matches the autistic's skills.
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